• They have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of major error (eg, miscalculation or experimental error), or as a result of fabrication (eg, of data)
    or falsification (eg, image manipulation)

  • It constitutes plagiarism

  • The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper attribution to previous sources or disclosure to the editor, permission to republish, or justification (ie, cases of redundant publication)

  • It contains material or data without authorisation for use

  • Copyright has been infringed or there is some other serious legal issue (eg, libel, privacy)

  • It reports unethical research

  • It has been published solely on the basis of a compromised or manipulated peer review process

  • The author(s) failed to disclose a major competing interest (aka, conflict of interest) that, in the view of the editor, would have unduly affected interpretations of the work or recommendations by editors and peer reviewers.