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Obesity is an excess of body fat, generally, caused by an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, which can lead to a cause of noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, heart disease, and stroke) diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders, some cancers, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia. Individuals with obesity has a high risk of premature death when compared with underweight. There is evidence that increased waist hip ratio, as an indicator of visceral adiposity, was significantly associated with malfunction of autonomic activity in obesity. Notably, This is an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, in favor of an increase in sympathetic or a decrease in parasympathetic activity. This results in deteriorations in cardiovascular health of obesity. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a non-invasive tool for assessment and prediction of the future health. In clinical settings, heart rate variability can be used as a marker to reflect the cardiac modulation of the autonomic nervous system in patients with obesity. The analysis and assessment of HRV includes time-domain parameters and frequency-domain parameters analysis. Recently, there is evident indicating that obesity–related malfunction of autonomic activity can be improved by weight reduction, nutritional consumption, and regular exercise, leading loading to improve sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in obesity.
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