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Purpose : The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical variables of golf swing during golf shots on flat, uphill, and downhill slopes.
Methods : Sixteen male amateur university golfers with right-handed volunteered to participate in the study. The participants performed 5 swings on three different slope conditions (flat, uphill and downhill). The customized swing plate was used to create uphill and downhill slopes of ±10° and was installed equipments for recording club head speed and ground reaction force. Kinematic data were collected using infra-red motion capture cameras. The biomechanical variables of highest club head speed for each participant under each condition was selected in order to specify variable’s values at each event (address, top-backswing, mid-down swing and ball-impact) for statistical analysis.
Results : The results revealed thai the stance width was significantly wider (p < .05) for the uphill and downhill slopes compared to the flat condition. Compared with a flat swing condition, uphill and downhill condition showed significantly higher and lower (p < .05) ground reaction force at lower foot and higher foot, respectively. For motion analysis, uphill condition showed significant differences in hip flexion and knee flexion in every swing event while there were no significant differences in knee flexion and hip flexion at some swing events for the downhill condition. Finally, performance outcomes evaluation showed significantly lower in club head speed and trunk rotation velocity between the flat and uphill conditions (p < .05). In contrast, there were no significant difference in trunk rotation velocity and club head speed between flat and downhill condition.
Conclusion : Golf swing under uphill and downhill should stance wider for balancing against weight that transfer to the lower foot. Furthermore, Golfer should keep swing motion similar to normal swing which normally perform in the flat condition as much as possible in order to maintain trunk rotation velocity which importance to develop club head velocity.
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