Nursing Journal of The Ministry of Public Health 2020-09-22T16:05:42+07:00 ดร.ศุกร์ใจ เจริญสุข Open Journal Systems <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">วัตถุประสงค์</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><br></strong></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">วารสารพยาบาลกระทรวงสาธารณสุขจัดทำขึ้นเพื่อส่งเสริมและเผยแพร่ผลงานวิจัยและงานวิชาการด้านการพยาบาลทุกสาขาและงานด้านการแพทย์</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ตั้งแต่ปี 2555 วารสารการพิมพ์ปีที่ 3 มกราคม - เมษายน, ฉบับที่ 2 พฤษภาคม - สิงหาคม, ฉบับที่ 3 กันยายน - ธันวาคม</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <div id="__if72ru4sdfsdfrkjahiuyi_once" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div id="__if72ru4sdfsdfruh7fewui_once" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</div> <div id="__hggasdgjhsagd_once" style="display: none;">&nbsp;</div> Writing Textbooks and Academic Books for Promoting Academic Positions 2020-08-27T14:39:17+07:00 Boontip Siritarungsri <p>Having been used as evidence-based, textbooks or academic books are considered valuable academic achievements that reflect the authors’ resourceful concepts on their resourceful knowledge and experiences. There are some differences between textbooks and academic books, in terms of contents presentation and target groups of benefits. The authors need to make decision which one; textbooks or academic books they would like to submit for promoting their academic positions. Startlingly, the authors review their knowledge or experiences related to the books’ titles that they would like to write if they have enough resources to write it now, how much they had and how much they need to search more, as well as determine the target readers. Lastly, the important thing is how to write to enhance readers’ new knowledge and experiences, self-learning, and having inquiry mind leading towards continuous study. However, writing textbooks and books for promoting academic positions, the authors are recommended to keep writing contents, style, and format in the academic way by using art in transfer body of knowledge to target readers as if they are sitting behind the authors. This is truly a challenge approach for the authors to produce qualified textbooks or academic books and to promote academic positions.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Innovative Proactive Health Services: The Role of Community Nurse Practitioners in Response to Thailand 4.0 2020-08-27T14:57:12+07:00 Suriya Fongkerd Sunan Sinsuesatkul Seubtrakul Tantalanukul <p>Innovative proactive health services are developed from the creative thinking of community nurse practitioners. It is a key factor in the 21st century’s competitive edge and the success of the nursing organization. For nursing organizations, leaders should promote their own creativity and that of the nursing team, along with the promotion and development of other capabilities to improve and develop nursing services efficiently and effectively in accordance with the requirements of the Thailand 4.0 policy, which will reflect the quality of services provided to clients. To accomplish this goal, one of the critical roles of Community Nursing Practitioner that impact the development of health service innovation is to activate critical and creative thinking to become part of the mindset of nurses. In order to understand the more complex practice situations of nurses, nurse practitioners should apply innovative proactive health services and jointly develop innovation to be and integral component of a sustainable nursing organization.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) The Integration of Contemplative Education Concepts and Problem-based Learning Method in a Selected Topic of Ethics and Laws in Nursing Profession Subject for Nursing Student 2020-08-31T15:49:00+07:00 Sarinya Polsingchan Komwat Rungruang <p>The nursing profession aims to look after both physical and mental health of people. Therefore, it is extremely important that nurses have knowledge, skills in nursing practice, and a strong inner life including physical, mental and spiritual aspects, in order to provide humanized healthcare. Therefore, the educational institution should emphasize the importance of learning processes in order to create compassionate, capable, ethical nurses and socially responsible citizens. This article presents an application of the concept of contemplative education integrated with problem-based teaching methods in a selected topic of the Ethics and Laws in Nursing Profession subject for nursing students. It focuses on learning according to 9 steps of problem-based learning with the concept of contemplative education through the process of dialogue, deep listening, contemplation together with reflection. The results showed that learners are able to achieve learning outcomes in all 5 areas and have an understanding of themselves and of others. As a result, they are more open to listen to others, understand and do not judge others, and dare to express opinions and feelings openly. Learners are also able to apply knowledge to their own development including planning to apply what they have learned to look after the clients covering holistic care including physical, mental, social, and spiritual aspects based on generosity.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Nurses’ Role in the Care of Children with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection 2020-08-28T10:20:51+07:00 Alisa Khunkaew เสน่ห์ ขุนแก้ว Bootsakorn Yotsai Panatchaya Chuawoung <p>Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection is the leading cause of childhood hospitalization and mortality. Epidemics of RSV have been found during the wet season and winter. The infection occurs in the lower respiratory tract and may be severe among infants and children aged less than two years old. RSV infection may cause childhood hospitalization with respiratory failure, which is a severe complication of RSV infection. The purpose of this article is to provide guidelines for nursing care practice for children hospitalized with RSV infection including how to monitor RSV complications and hypoxemia, promote health and well-being, and give health education to reduce the recurrence rate of RSV infection. This article will enhance the comprehension of caring for children with RSV infection in terms of family-centered care. Furthermore, discussions between nurses and parents would be beneficial for improving the quality of care and better quality of life among children with RSV infection.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Effects of Contemplative Practice on Self-awareness and Empathy Among Nursing Students 2020-08-27T15:39:46+07:00 Khoy La-ong-on Pimpimon Wongchaiya Nantika Ananchaipatana Chalermpon Gajai <p>This study aimed to examine the effects of contemplative practice on self-awareness and empathy among nursing students. A two-group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The sample consisted of 89 third year nursing students of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Phayao. They were assigned into either a control group or an experimental group with 41 students each. Both groups obtained regular teach­ing and learning. However, the experimental group received contemplative practice as an additional learning method. The instruments included: the contemplative practice program, a self-awareness questionnaire, an empathy questionnaire, and a structured interview guideline. Data were analyzed using means, standard deviations, a paired t-test and an independent t-test. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings reveal that after the intervention, the experimental group had significantly higher self-awareness and empathy scores than the control group (p&lt;0.05). Analysis of qualitative data revealed the following themes: awareness of one’s self and of others. We suggest that contemplative practice should be integrated into the nursing curriculum to enhance self-awareness and empathy which are significant characteristics of good nurses.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Perceived Workload, Work Relationship, Social Support and Job Burnout among Registered Nurses with Iddhipada 4 as the Moderator 2020-08-27T15:51:49+07:00 Thasanee Sirinopmanee Maytawee Udomtamanupab Sompoch Iamsupasit <p>The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the relationships among perceived workload, work relationship, social support and job burnout of registered nurses with Iddhipada 4 (4 basis for success) as the moderator. The sample group included 210 registered nurses who worked in Chaophrayayommarat Hospital, Suphanburi province. The data were collected by the self-administered questionnaire, composing of 6 parts. The data were analyzed with Pearson Product-Moment correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The results showed that perceived workload was positively correlated with job burnout in the dimension of emotional exhaustion (r=.483, p&lt;.01) and the dimension of depersonalization (r =.288, p&lt;.01). Whereas, it was negatively correlated with the dimension of personal accomplishment (r=-.155, p&lt;.05). The work relationship was negatively correlated with job burnout in the dimension of emotional exhaustion (r=-.285, p&lt;.01) and the dimension of depersonalization (r=-.169, p&lt;.05) but it was positively correlated with dimension of personal accomplishment (r=.209, p&lt;.01). Social support was negatively correlated with job burnout in the dimension of emotional exhaustion (r=-.272, p &lt;.01). However, it was positively correlated with the dimension of reduced occupational accomplishment (r=.202, p&lt;.01). Iddhipada 4 was a moderator on the relationship between social support and job burnout in the dimension of emotional exhaustion (β=.011, ΔR2=.255).</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Risk Factors for Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Older Adults 2020-08-27T16:16:50+07:00 Pornnapa Naknonehun Aimpapha Prechaterasat Chanapong Kittayarak <p>The purpose of this research was to investigate risk factors of comorbidity, inflammatory response, postoperative pain, and postoperative delirium for postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in older adults undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The sample consisted of 120 older adults who had coronary artery bypass grafting. Data were collected by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-Thai 2000), the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) scale, the Postoperative Pain scale and the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Data analysis was done using chi-square and logistic regression. The results revealed that 49.20 percent of the sparticipants had postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Logistic regression analysis showed that inflammatory response, postoperative pain, and postoperative delirium together predicted with 35.7 percent of the variation in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (Nagelkerke: R2=.357, p&lt;.05) but comorbidity was not significant for predicting postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, the factors associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction should be further studied. However, these research findings can be developed for surveillance and care plans so as to prevent the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Active Ageing among Community Dwelling Older Adults in Ubon Ratchathani Province 2020-09-13T11:38:02+07:00 Yommana Chananin Pornchai Jullamate Naiyana Piphatvanitcha <p>Promoting older adults to increase activity levels as they age is very important for the current social situation. Active ageing is a process that leads older adults to improve their quality of life and highlights the importance of health, social integration, and security. The objective of this descriptive research was to study the level of active ageing among community-dwelling older adults in Ubon Ratchathani. The sample consisted of 97 older adults in Ubon Ratchathani. The sample size was calculated using the G*Power software and randomly selected using multi-stage sampling. The research instruments included an interview form for active ageing which had a reliability coefficient of .91. The data were analysed using frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results of this research showed a high level of active ageing among the community-dwelling older adults in Ubon Ratchathani ( <img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}"> =117.16, SD=13.81). When considering each aspect, it was found that the dimension of strengthening family ties for being cared for late in life had the highest average ( <img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}"> =3.69, SD=.51), followed by being self-reliant (<img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}"> =3.55, SD=.45) and growing spiritual wisdom (<img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}"> =3.54, SD=.44). The dimension of building up financial security had the lowest average ( <img title="\bar{x}" src="\bar{x}"> =2.73, SD=.74). The study revealed the potential of active aging among the community-dwelling older adults. This findings can be used for planning and promoting the development of older adults, especially regarding to the dimension of building up financial security and engaging in active learning, which was found at a medium level.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Effects of a Simulation-Based Learning Model for Medical Management of Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases 2020-08-27T16:45:44+07:00 Warangkana Chompoopan Worawut Chompoopan Atchara Chanaboon Saowalak Seedaket Jareeya Yomseeken <p>This quasi-experimental research aimed to determine the effects of a simulation-based learning model by examining (1) knowledge before and after the use of the model; (2) students’ critical thinking and self-confidence after using the model; and (3) students’ satisfaction with the use of the model. A total of 36 Advance Emergency Medical Technician (AEMT) sophomores in Academic Year 2019 were included in this study. The study tools composed of (1) a questionnaire of general information, (2) a cardiovascular diseases care test, (3) a critical thinking questionnaire, (4) a self-confidence questionnaire, and (5) a questionnaire of satisfaction with SBL. The resulting data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, and standard deviation. A paired t-test was used to compare two population means. The results showed that, after using the medical simulation-based learning, the post-test mean score for student knowledge was significantly higher than the pre-test mean score (p&lt;.001). Most of the students had high levels of critical thinking (77.78 %) and self-confidence (72.22%). Satisfaction after the students learned by using SBL (80.56%) was at a high level. The results indicated that SBL promoted and enhanced students’ knowledge and practical skills of patient care management. So, SBL might be integrated into the critical thinking program to improve students’ decision-making skills of patient-care management. Further study might be prolonged a period of study to improve students’ patient care management skills consecutively.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Activities of Daily Living and Quality of Life among Older Adults in Nakhon Ratchasima Province 2020-09-22T16:05:42+07:00 Sunisa Khakhuen Haruethai Kongmaha Prangthip Thasanoh Elter Wichitr Phantong <p>This descriptive research aimed to investigate activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (QOL) of older adults (aged 60 years or more) and explore relationships between the two variables and personal background. The participants consisted of 400 older adults and selected by using multi-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected using 1) a demographic form, 2) the Thai version of ADL and, 3) WHOQOL-BREF-THAI. The content va;idity of the demographic form gave indexes of item-objective congruences of between .67 and 1. ADL and WHOQOL-BREF-THAI were tested for their reliabilities and found Cronbach’s alpha coefficient gave values of .932 and .955, respectively. Descriptive and correlational statistics, including Pearson’s correlation coefficient, point-biserial correlation coefficient, and Chi-squared test, were used to analyze data. The results showed that most of the participants were socially bound with good QOL. Their ADL was negatively related to age (r=-.260, p&lt;.05) and responsibility to look after children or grandchildren (rpb =-.124, p&lt;.05). Their QOL was negatively associated with age (r =-.123, p&lt;.05), having care givers (rpb=-.110, p&lt;.05), and having chronic illness (rpb=-.246, p&lt;.05). In addition, it was statistically significant (p&lt;.05) in relation to marital status (χ2=8.145), educational level (χ2=26209), sufficient income (χ2 (2, N=400) = 41.286), occupation (χ2 (5, N=400) =26.463), and health insurance (χ2=17.956). The results suggest that ADL and QOL of older adults should be promoted by reducing their responsibility for looking after younger family members, treating sickness, and encouraging them to look for extra jobs to increase their income. Future research should be focused on developing programs of physical activities to promote ADL of older adults in communities.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Factors Related to Sexual Risk Behaviors from Internet Use of Secondary School Students in Muang District, Suphanburi Province 2020-08-28T10:44:22+07:00 Sunisa Chansaeng Aree Rongjig Purin Srisodsaluk Srisurang Kahanak Panjarut Laisuwannachart <p>Secondary school students have an easy access to the internet, which can cause inappropriate behaviors that affect teenagers in many dimensions such as premarital sex, etc. This study aimed to investigate sexual risk behaviors from internet use among secondary school students in Muang District, Suphanburi Province, and to examine factors related to sexual risk behaviors from internet use. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. The sample consisted of 372 secondary school students in Muang District, Suphanburi Province in academic year 2018. Data were collected by a self-report questionnaire which included demographic data, predisposing factors, enabling factors, reinforcing factors and sexual risk behaviors from internet use. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and correlation between factors was analyzed using Chi-Square test.</p> <p>The results showed that 84.4 percent of the sample had a low level of sexual risk behavior from internet use. Sexual risk behavior from internet use of secondary school students had a statistically significant relationship with the following factors: age (p&lt;.01), level of education (p&lt;.01), knowledge of the Computer-related Crime Act (p&lt;.01), attitudes towards internet use (p&lt;.001), period of the most internet use each day (p&lt;.05), and social support using the internet from teachers (p&lt;.05). It is suggested that parents should monitor internet use during the period from 8:00 pm onwards. Moreover, educational agencies should allow teachers to instill appropriate values and attitudes for internet use, or set up activities in which teachers can participate and encourage the reduction of sexual risk behaviors from improper internet use.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Development of Multimedia on Mechanisms of Labour for Nursing Students 2020-09-13T11:39:53+07:00 Soopussara Komindr Waralya Sangpitak Malee Keanoppakun Kanokorn Srisomphan <p>Using multimedia for teaching and learning can help students to become independent learners. The objective of this study was to develop multimedia on mechanisms of labors for nursing students. This research study was conducted with 119 3rd year nursing students. The research instruments were comprised of 1) the Educational multimedia on labor processes which was evaluated by 3 content experts and 3 educational technology experts, 2) the Knowledge test on labor processes with 20 items which had an index of item objective congruence (IOC) of 1, and 3) the Student’s satisfaction on labor process multimedia with an IOC of .93. The development of educational multimedia consisted of 3 steps: Step 1 was a pilot test and improvement of educational multimedia using stratified sampling of 13 students who had learning outcome at high, moderate and low levels. The first trial of analysis was conducted with 3 students prior to implementation with another group of 10 students. Step 2 was the reliability testing of Knowledge on labor processes on 30 nursing students with a Cronbach alpha’s coefficient of .7 and the Student’s satisfaction questionnaire with a Cronbach alpha’s coefficient of .93. Step 3 was an evaluation of the effectiveness of the educational multimedia using 76 nursing students. The results indicated that the effectiveness index: (E.I.) of the educational multimedia on labor processes was .67. Students’ knowledge on labor processes after learning through educational multimedia was significantly higher than that of the pretest (p&lt;.001). The findings revealed that student’s satisfaction towards Educational multimedia on labor processes was at a high level with a mean score of 4.40 (SD=10.69). In conclusion, the results of this study show an effective educational innovation for nursing education which can be used for alternative way of teaching and learning in the 21st century.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) The Development of Aged Friendly Community: Tambon Naphu Aging School in Amphur Phen, Udonthani 2020-08-28T14:58:42+07:00 Chiraporn Worawong Chaweewan Sridawruang Dawruwan Thawinkarn Pornpun Manasatchakun <p>This Research for Community aimed to transfer knowledge from research knowledge management for utilization in aging school and to assess the effectiveness of knowledge transfer in aging school on communities and targeted populations. Participatory action research was applied for planning, action, observation and reflection. Research was conducted in Naphu sub-District, Phen District, Udonthani Province. Participants were local administrators, community leaders, local trainers, aging school students, and older persons’ caregivers. Data were collected using interviews, focus group and answering questionnaires. Frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations were used to analyze quantitative data. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The research findings revealed that knowledge and manuals obtained from research were beneficial for utilization in other settings. These included a manual for training of trainers of aging school, a lifelong learning curriculum to promote active aging, and a manual for older persons’ health promotion according to naturalism principles. The majority of aging school students had quality of life with a good level. This specific aging school was developed to be a master aging school for creating aging school network. Consequently, this led to several benefits in the community including social self-reliance, financial self-reliance which helped support community in fostering older persons’ good health, social participation, and life security leading to enhanced quality of life.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Predictive Factors for the Quality of Life of Dependent Older Adults under the Long Term Care system in Bangkok 2020-08-28T15:41:12+07:00 Sunisa Vilasri Kwanjai Amnatsatsue Patcharaporn Kerdmongkol Plernpit Boonyamalik <p>This descriptive research aimed to examine the quality of life and its predictive factors among dependent older adults. The participants were 133 dependent older adults aged 60 years and older who registered under the long term care program. The participants were randomly recruited from the selected 6 public health centers in Bangkok using the multi-stage sampling technique. Each subject was interviewed by the researcher using a structured questionnaire. Most subjects were female (59.4%), homebound (85.0%), and having a moderate quality of life (67.0%). According to the multivariate regression analysis, it was indicated that social support, functional status, income adequacy, service satisfaction, and home visit by caregivers can jointly predict about 38.6 % of variance in quality of life among dependent older adults (p&lt;.05). These findings can be applied by a community nurse practitioner to improve service quality for dependent older adults living in the Bangkok metropolitan area by focusing on social support, including financial and material support, to increase functional status and to support caregivers during their care giving at home. In addition, preventive long term care focusing on chronic disease management should be developed for older adults to prevent disability and to promote their quality of life.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Health Literacy of the Population at Risk for Diabetes and Hypertension 2020-08-28T15:55:11+07:00 Rungnapa Chantra Chuleeporn Heetaksorn Suthanan Kunlaka Atiya Sarakshetrin Daravan Rongmuang <p>This descriptive cross-sectional research aimed to study the level of health literacy of the population who were at risk for diabetes and hypertension in Surat Thani province. The data were collected during October 2018-September 2019. A sample of 325 people who were at risk for diabetes and hypertension visiting the health promotion hospital, Muang Surat Thani was recruited using simple random sampling. The data collection tools consisted of a 1) general information questionnnaire and 2) Health literacy questionnaire composed of 8 components in 61 items. The item objective congruence of the questionnaire was validated by 3 experts yielding values of all items greater than 0.67 and the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient was 0.86. The data were analyzed using frequency, percentage and mean. The results showed that the sample consisted of females (56%) and males (44%). The mean age was 51.23±11.34 years. Knowledge regarding health behavior of the sample was somewhat correct at 64.62 percent, followed by a misunderstanding (24% correct)and correct understanding at 11.38%. Access to health information and health services was at the lowest level (54.15%), communication skill was at a fair level (68%), self-management was at a fair level (76.31%). Media literacy was at a fair level (74.77%), decision skill was at a fair level (78.46%). Participation in social health activity was at a fair level (69.23%), and individual health care was at a fair level (72.62%). Based on the results of this study, health care providers should promote health literacy among people who are at risk of diabetes and hypertension, in order to have a better understanding of how to monitor their blood pressure and blood glucose level and to practice appropriate health care behaviors.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>health literacy; diabetes; hypertension</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c) Effects of Participatory Nursing Supervision Program on the Quality of Supervision of Head Nurses in General Hospital, Chainat Province 2020-08-28T16:33:09+07:00 Tipawan Tangwongkit Suwattana Kerdmuang Montatip Chaiyasak Nitjawan Weerawatthanodom Sasima Pungpotong <p>The objective of this quasi-experimental research with pre-test and post-test design was to study the effects of a participatory nursing supervision program on the quality of supervision of head nurses. The population in this research included 36 head nurses in the general hospital, Chainat province. The research instrument used in the research was a participatory nursing supervision program developed based on the Proctor’s nursing supervision and Sashkin’s participative management concept. The head nurses were equipped with knowledge, awareness of the importance of supervision and implementation of supervision planning, visiting, coaching, counseling, participatory nursing conference and evaluation. The data were collected 1 week before the experiment and 3 weeks after the experiment by using a questionnaire assessing knowledge, attitude and quality of supervision of the head nurses. The four-week program of participatory nursing supervision was conducted. The duration of data collection was carried out over a total of 8 weeks. The data were analyzed by the descriptive statistics and paired t-test. The research showed that, after the implementation of the participatory supervision program, the head nurses reported higher scores on knowledge, attitude and quality of supervision with statistical significance (p&lt;.05). The results of this study can be applied for improving supervision practice while research on nursing supervision can be conducted using the data obtained during routine work.</p> 2020-08-27T00:00:00+07:00 Copyright (c)