The Effect of Duration of Weaning to Bone Markers and Bone Radiographic Diagnosis in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)


  • Petchroi Petchreing Bureau of Biotechnology in Livestock Production, Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
  • Taweepoke Angkawanish National Elephant Institute, Thailand Forest Industry Organization
  • Somkiat Huaijantug Department of Clinical Sciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University
  • Walasinee Sakcamduang Department of Clinical Sciences and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University
  • Nlin Arya Department Pre-clinic and Applied Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Mahidol University


elephant, bone marker, metabolic bone disease, radiographic diagnosis


Metabolic bone disease is an important bone disease in elephant calves. This study investigates the effect of the duration of weaning on osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of type-1 collagen with the radiographic diagnosis of limbs of elephants. Ten elephant calves were set into two groups by their duration of weaning. The early-weaned group was weaned before 2 years old, and the normal-weaned group was weaned after 2 years old. Blood was collected from these two groups to measure bone makers and bone-related parameters. Meanwhile, a radiographic diagnosis was performed to evaluate the elephant bone. A statistically significant difference was found in the osteocalcin of the two groups. The Osteocalcin of the early-weaned group was higher than the normal-weaned group (P = 0.028). Other parameters were not significantly different. All radiographic diagnosis images of elephant bone were normal, with no lesion found. The significantly higher osteocalcin in early weaned elephant calves may indicate the high bone turnover in these elephants. This elevated bone turnover was not seen by radiographic diagnosis. Further investigations and adequate management should be carried out to confirm and prevent metabolic bone disease in early weaned elephant calves.


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How to Cite

Petchreing, P., Angkawanish, T., Huaijantug, S. ., Sakcamduang, W., & Arya, N. (2023). The Effect of Duration of Weaning to Bone Markers and Bone Radiographic Diagnosis in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Applied Animal Science, 15(2), 39–50. Retrieved from



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