The Related Theories and Model of Suicidal Behavior: An Ideation to Action Applicable to Suicide Prevention
Keywords:Theory, Suicidal ideation, Suicide attempts, Prevention, Implementation
Related theories of suicidal behavior form the basis of conceptual frameworks that present empirical information about suicidal behavior. These are unique and give people a clear understanding of the process from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt, as explained by suicidal behavior related to "from thinking to action." This article presents a theory and model that combine specific components and frameworks, explains the suicidal ideation hypothesis, and looks at the process from ideation to attempt. The three selected theories were the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS), the Integrated Motivational-Volitional Model of Suicidal Behavior (IMV), and the Three-Step Theory (3ST) of Suicide, respectively.
The results of the theoretical comparison were as follows: 1) The theoretical level is the same as the mid-range theory that aims to describe and explain the reasons behind suicidal behavior and the consequences of suicidal ideation in suicide attempts. It also aims to prescribe the implementation of guidelines, research and interventions to prevent suicide. 2) An applied potential was served for the policy, an individual, family, and community levels. 3) The conceptual framework of these theories was the biological and psychosocial frameworks. IPTS, IMV, and 3ST help practitioners to conduct suicide research, practice, and prevention, including: providing a key method for identifying research questions, selecting variables, interpreting, and summarizing the results of the investigation on suicide prevention, assisting to predict the outcome of an intervention with clients, supporting the analysis and management of client data, and providing a rationale for decision-making with clients to choose appropriate interventions. It is also used to plan and evaluate suicide prevention interventions to help specify which direction we should take in the future. IMV enhances the evaluation of a situation through the motivation and the volitional phase, and then supports the creation of appropriate activities to prevent suicide. This reduces the likelihood of suicidal ideation among individuals. The practitioner should be aware of the variation in the volitional phase and entrapment variables, which are prominent variables in predicting suicide attempts and suicide prevention interventions. The best theory that can explain and prescribe an effective suicide prevention intervention is the three-step suicide theory (3ST). These theories provide relevant factors and components that users need to focus on. Effective suicide prevention should reduce pain and/or reduce the capacity of suicide, which is a risk factor in this theory. However, the practitioner should increase hope and improve the connected, which present as a protective factor in this theory. The most important key success factor in suicide prevention is minimizing the likelihood of suicidal ideation to suicide attempt. Whereas, the application of these theories to description, explanation, prescription and suicide prevention requires analysis of specific situations and the implementation of goals. Therefore, these views should inform the future of suicide research and prevention.
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