Translation and Validation of the Bahasa Malaysia Version of the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire


  • Siti Romahani Rahman Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia. Eamil:
  • Md Mizanur Rahman Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia. Email:


Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, Content validity, Internal consistency


Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) encompass traumatic circumstances encountered during childhood, including abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction. The ramifications of ACE exposure in adulthood are linked to poor social, behavioural, and health outcomes. The ACE questionnaire has been widely used to identify individuals with childhood adversities and their relation to developing chronic diseases in adulthood. This research aims to translate and validate the 10-item ACE questionnaire from English to Bahasa Malaysia to facilitate its application in our context. The translation process involved forward and backward translation conducted by two language experts fluent in English as their second language. Content validation was performed by three public health specialists and three language experts. A pilot test was subsequently conducted involving 200 participants to assess the reliability of the translated questionnaire. After cross-cultural adaptation, we retained eight items with three domains of ACE. The item-level content validity index (I-CVI) ranged from 0.83 to 1.00, while the average scale-level content validity index (S-CVI/Ave) ranged from 0.88 to 0.98, signifying strong content validity. Furthermore, the overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was determined to be 0.703, indicating good reliability. In conclusion, we affirm that the 8-item Bahasa Malaysia version of the questionnaire presents a valid and reliable tool for assessing ACE among adult males in Malaysia.


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