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Tatpicha Pongsiri
Duangporn Benjanarasut
Nongnapas Charoenpanich


Purpose : The purpose of this research was to study and compare the kinematics data of track swimming start during short and long flight distance in male university swimmers.

Methods : Thirteen male swimmers from Chulalongkorn University were recruited for this study. Each swimmer performed a track swimming start with a maximum start speed ten times in which the shortest and the longest flight distance were chosen for analysis. 3-D kinematic was captured with four markers were placed on vertex of the skull, tip of left middle finger, tip of left iliac crest and head of left fifth metatarsal based on the Plug-In Gait Body Marker Placement. The paired t-test was used to compare differences in kinematics data of short and long flight distance. A level of significant was set at p-value ≤ 0.05.

Results : The results showed that the horizontal velocity at take-off, take-off angle, flight time, entry angles, and time to entry were differences (p<0.05) between the longest and shortest flight distance. When the flight distance increased, the flight time increased but time to entry decreased. On the other hand, the horizontal velocity to entry was not significant different between two flight distances.

Conclusion : A long-flight distance (about 2 times the height of athlete) is more effective in allowing swimmers to enter the water quickly compared to a short-flight distance.


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Pongsiri, T., Benjanarasut, D., & Charoenpanich, N. (2020). KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF A TRACK SWIMMING START IN MALE UNIVERSITY SWIMMERS. Journal of Sports Science and Health, 21(1), 49–60. Retrieved from
บทความวิจัย (Research Article)


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