Main Article Content
Purpose: The research aimed to study the electromyography during three squat exercise patterns. The objective was to study whether the muscles namely Biceps femoris (BF), Rectus femoris (RF), Vastus medialis (VM), Semitendinosus (SM), and Gastrocnemius (GN) work differently during the three squatting patterns, which were standard squat (STDQ), incline squat (ICQ), and decline squat (DCQ), by using angle adjusting tool.
Methods: The 15 healthy male participants’ electromyography of Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVIC) by using Isokinetic machine. The participants were asked to randomly perform the three squat patterns for three times according to the metronome rhythm and the lowering pose depth was measured by using goniometer. EMG and MotionTools EMG software was used for the data analysis. Researchers normalized the outcome by comparing the highest MVIC recorded with the electromyography while doing the three squat patterns, then the values were calculated into percentage (%MVIC). The raw data were filtered by using the Butterworth digital filter which was configured the Low pass filter with cutoff frequency at 500 Hertz and High pass filter with cutoff frequency at 20 Hertz; the sampling frequency was configured at 2000 Hertz. The One-Way ANOVA with Repeated Measures was used as part of the statistical analytic method.
Results: It was found that each muscle segments worked differently during the three squat patterns and was determined from %MVIC of the muscle segments being studied. The highest electromyography recorded was in VM during DCQ at 113.70±42.09 % and the lowest electromyography recorded was in SM during STQD at 21.02±13.02 %. Moreover, it was found that the electromyography in SM while doing STDQ was lower than ICQ with statistically significant at P<0.05 and the electromyography in RF while doing ICQ was lower than DCQ with statistically significant at P<0.05.
Conclusion: The result of this research can be used as a guideline to design the squat exercise patterns specifically for PF and SM; moreover, the result can also have used as a furtherance in designing appropriate exercising equipment to train and build the muscle.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Allam, A. A., Elnegmy, E. H., & El Fakharany, M. S. (2020). Lower Limb Muscles Activity and Inclined Squat Position in Normal Children (Cross Sectional Study). The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine, 81(1), 1314-1316. https://doi.org/10.21608/ejhm.2020.113062
Cho, M., Kang, J. Y., Oh, J. H., Wu, J. G., Choi, E. B., Park, S. E., & Choi, M. (2017). The Effects of Performing Squats on an Inclined Board on Thigh Muscle Activation. Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science, 6(1), 39-44. https://doi.org/10.14474/ptrs.2017.6.1.39
Czaprowski, D.,Biernat, R. & Kędra, A.(2012). Squat - Rules of Performing and Most Common Mistakes. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism, 19(1) 3-7. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10197-012-0001-6
Donatelli R. A. (1987). Abnormal biomechanics of the foot and ankle. The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy, 9(1), 11-16. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1918.104.22.168
Gryzlo, S. M., Patek, R. M., Pink, M., & Perry, J. (1994). Electromyographic analysis of knee rehabilitation exercises. The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy, 20(1), 36-43. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1922.214.171.124
Kitamura, T., Kido, A., Ishida, Y., Kobayashi, Y., Tsukamoto, S., & Tanaka, Y. (2019). Muscle Activity Pattern with A Shifted Center of Pressure during the Squat Exercise. Journal of sports science & medicine, 18(2), 248-252.
Konrad, P. (2005). The abc of emg. A practical introduction to kinesiological electromyography, 1.
Rash, G., & Edd. (2002). Electromyography Fundamentals.International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors.
Richards, J., Selfe, J., Sinclair, J., May, K., & Thomas, G. (2016). The effect of different decline angles on the biomechanics of double limb squats and the implications to clinical and training practice. Journal of Human Kinetics, 52, 125-138. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0200
Saeterbakken, A. H., & Fimland, M. S. (2013). Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces. Journal of strength and conditioning research, 27(1), 130–136. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182541d43
Wilk, K. E., Escamilla, R. F., Fleisig, G. S., Barrentine, S. W., Andrews, J. R., & Boyd, M. L. (1996). A comparison of tibiofemoral joint forces and electromyographic activity during open and closed kinetic chain exercises. The American journal of sports medicine, 24(4), 518–527. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659602400418
Thibordee, S., and Prasartwuth, O. (2014). Effectiveness of roundhouse kick in elite Taekwondo athletes. Journal of electromyography and kinesiology, 24(3), 353-358.
World Taekwondo. (2018). WT Competition Rules &Interpretation. (Online). Retrieved June 18,2018, from worldtaekwondo.org Website: http://www.worldtaekwondo.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Revision-WT-Competition-Rules-Interpretation-Hammamet-040520181.pdf
Yu-Hsiang, N., Jung-San, C., and Wen-Tzu, T. (2007). The Comparison of Kinematics Characteristics of Two Roundhouse Kicking Techniques in Elite Taekwondo Athletes. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(5), S478.