Main Article Content
A smoke-free home is defined as one where people are not allowed to smoke anywhere inside the home. Smoking inside the home leads to second-hand smoke for all household members, a health hazard that needs to be addressed. This study explored the perspectives of community members toward a smoke-free home in a suburb of Bangkok metropolitan area, Thailand. This paper describes the qualitative descriptive phase of a sequential mixed method study which employed four focus groups interviews with 29 key informants, including community committee members, smokers’ family members, and current smokers. Focus group guidelines centred on understanding second-hand smoke and its effects on family health, how to ban smoking inside homes, and how communities get involved in promoting smoke-free homes.
Content analysis was applied for data analysis and the findings on community perspectives on smoke-free home had three categories: 1) negative attitudes toward second-hand smoke inside homes; 2) effect of second-hand smoke on health problems; and 3) feasibility of smoke-free homes. Participants believed it was possible to develop a smoke-free home by setting a community agenda that required participation and coordination among community members, family members, and current smokers.This should entail strengthening family negotiations, setting smoking ban rules, and providing smoking areas outside homes, as well as supporting current smokers to quit. Public health nurses have a role to play in promoting smoke-free homes by their advocating, encouraging, and empowering smokers in reducing or quitting their smoking, as well as providing guidance to their families. In turn this helps to strengthen community action to prevent second-hand smoking and smoking reduction.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright: The Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, Thailand Nursing & Midwifery Council has exclusive rights to publish, reproduce and distribute the manuscript and all contents therein.
2. Gallus S, Lugo A, Gorini G, Colombo P, Pacifici R, Fernandez E. Voluntary home smoking ban: prevalence, trend and determinants in Italy. European Journal of Public Health. 2016 26(5):841-4.
3. Iloh GUP, Collins PI. Awareness of health effects of exposure to secondhand smoke from cigarettes: A cross-sectional study of never-smoked adult primary care patients in Eastern Nigeria. Avicenna Journal of Medicine. 2017 7(4):164-70.
4. Seung Ju K, Kyu-Tae H, Seo Yoon L, Sung-Youn C, Eun-Cheol P, Kim SJ, et al. Is secondhand smoke associated with stress in smokers and non-smokers? BMC Public Health. 2015 15(1):1-10.
5. World Health Organization. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2017: monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies: WHO; 2017 [cited 2018 September 25]. Available from: https://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/ 2017/en/.
6. David AM, Mercado SP, Klein JD, Kaundan MsoK, Koong HN, Garcia E. Protecting children and families from tobacco and tobacco-related NCDs in the Western Pacific: good practice examples from Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore. Child: Care, Health & Development. 2017 43(5):774-8.
7. Bhat N, Oza S, Reddy JJ, Mitra R, Patel R, Singh S. Effect of anti-smoking legislation in public places. Addiction & Health. 2015 7(1/2):87-91.
8. Saw A, Paterniti D, Fung L-C, Tsoh J, Chen M, Tong E. social environmental influences on smoking and cessation: qualitative perspectives among Chinese-speaking smokers and nonsmokers in california. Journal of Immigrant & Minority Health. 2017 19(6):1404-11.
9. Valera P, Bachman L, Rucker AJ. A Qualitative study of smoking behaviors among newly released justice-involved men and women in New York city. Health & Social Work. 2016 41(2):121-8.
10. Kruger J, Jama A, Homa DM, Babb SD, King BA. Smoke-free home and vehicle rules by tobacco use status among US adults. Preventive Medicine. 2015 78:9-13.
11. Sultana P, Rahman MT, Roy DC, Akter S, Jung J, Rahman MM, et al. Tobacco control policies to promote awareness and smoke-free environments in residence and workplace to reduce passive tobacco smoking in Bangladesh and its correlates. PLoS ONE. 2018 13(6):1-12.
12. Berg CJ, Pinpin Z, Kegler MC. Perceived benefits of smoke-free homes, the process of establishing them, and enforcement challenges in Shanghai, China: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2015 15(1):1-9.
13. King BA, Patel R, Babb SD, Hartman AM, Freeman A. National and state prevalence of smoke-free rules in homes with and without children and smokers: Two decades of progress. Preventive Medicine. 2016 82:51-8.
14. Zheng ZL, Deng HY, Wu CP, Lam WL, Kuok WS, Liang WJ, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure of children at home and prevalence of parental smoking following implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao. Public Health (Elsevier). 2017 144:57-63.
15. Xiao Z, Martinez-Donate AP, Cook J, Piper ME, Berg K, Jones NR. Battling tobacco use at home: an analysis of smoke-free home rules among US veterans from 2001 to 2011. American Journal of Public Health. 2014 104(S4): S572-S9.
16. Clough AR, Grant K, Robertson J, Wrigley M, Nichols N, Fitzgibbon T. Interventions to encourage smoke-free homes in remote indigenous Australian communities:a study protocol to evaluate the effects of a community-inspired awareness-raising and motivational enhancement strategy. BMJ Open. 2018 8(3).
17. Nichter M, Padmajam S, Nichter M, Sairu P, Aswathy S, Mini GK, et al. Developing a smoke free homes initiative in Kerala, India. BMC Public Health. 2015 15(1):1-9.
18. Tobacco Control Research and Knowledge Management Center. Report on Thai people’s tobacco Consumption; 2018 [cited 2018 August 17]. Available from: https:// www.trc.or.th/th/images/upload/files/data/tobaccoinfo/ situation/2561/situation_2018.pdf.
19. Chotbenjamaporn P, Haruhansapong V, Jumriangrit P, Pitayarangsarit S, Agarwal N, Garg R. Tobacco use among thai students: Results from the 2015 global youth tobacco survey. Indian Journal of Public Health. 2017 61(5):40-6.
20. Thanh Tam T, Vasoontara Y, Dujrudee C, Sam-ang S, Adrian S, Tran TT, et al. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and health disparities: 8-year longitudinal findings from a large cohort of Thai adults. BMC Public Health. 2015 15(1):1-11.
21. Abdullah AS, Zhenyu M, Jing L, Kaiyong H, Li Y, Zhiyong Z, et al. Addressing parental smoking in pediatric settings of Chinese hospitals: a qualitative study of parents. BioMed Research International. 2014 2014:1-8.
22. Bath J, Wakerman J. Impact of community participation in primary health care: what is the evidence? Australian Journal of Primary Health. 2015 21(1):2-8.
23. Baum F, MacDougall C, Smith D. Participatory action research. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2006 60(10):854-7.
24. Stephens C. Participation in different fields of practice: using social theory to understand participation in community health promotion. Journal of Health Psychology.2007 12(6):949-60.
25. Campbell LM, Ross AJ, MacGregor RG. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation, South Africa: Lessons towards community involvement in health professional education. African Journal of Health Professions Education. 2016 8(1):50-5.
26. Gavin VR, Seeholzer EL, Leon JB, Chappelle SB, Sehgal AR. If we build It, we will come: a model for community-led change to transform neighborhood conditions to support healthy eating and active living. American Journal of Public Health. 2015 105(6):1072-7.
27. Juranić B, Rakošec Ž, Jakab J, Mikšić Š, Vuletić S, Ivandić M, et al. Prevalence, habits and personal attitudes towards smoking among health care professionals.Journal of Occupational Medicine & Toxicology. 2017 12:1-8.
28. Mayer AB, McDermott RJ, Bryant CA, Baldwin JA, Kromrey J. Sustainability of community-based health promotion coalitions: putting theory into practice. Health Behavior & Policy Review. 2017 4(6):511-20.
29. Smith ME, Engquist A, Carvajal C, Johnston-Zimmerman K, Algara M, Gilliland B, et al. Neighborhood formation in semi-urban settlements. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability. 2015 8(2):173-98.
30. Greiner KA, Friedman DB, Adams SA, Gwede CK, Cupertino P, Engelman KK, et al. Effective recruitment strategies and community-based participatory research: Community Networks Program Centers’ recruitment in cancer prevention studies. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2014 23(3):416-23.
31. Ministry of Public Health. Prevalence of smokers in Thai population aged 15 years and over. Health area 4, Pathumthani province; 2018. [cited 2018 August 11]. Available from: https://hdcservice.moph.go.th/hdc/reports/report.php? source=pformated/format1.php [in Thai].
32. Lincoln YS, Guba EG. Naturalistic Inquiry SAGE Publishing; 1985 [cited 2018 August 11]. Available from: https:// uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/asi/naturalistic-inquiry/book 842#preview.
33. Saw A, Paterniti DA, Fung LC, Tsoh JY, Tong EK, Fung L-C. Perspectives of Chinese American smoker and nonsmoker household pairs about the creating smokefree living together program. Cancer (0008543X). 2018 124:1599-606.
34. Kruger J, Patel R, Kegler M, Babb SD, King BA. Perceptions of harm from secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. adults, 2009-2010. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 2016 14:1-13.
35. Buczkowski K, Marcinowicz L, Czachowski S, Piszczek E. Motivations toward smoking cessation, reasons for relapse, and modes of quitting: results from a qualitative study among former and current smokers. Patient Preference & Adherence. 2014 8:1353-62.
36. Fedota JR, Stein EA. Resting-state functional connectivity and nicotine addiction: prospects for biomarker development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2015 1349(1):64-82.
37. Jianvitayakij S, Panpakdee O, Malathum P, Duffy S, Viwatwongkasem C. Factors influencing smoking cessation behavior among thai male smokers with hypertension. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research; 2014 [cited 2018 September 29]. Available from: https://tci-thaijo.org/index.php/PRIJNR/article/ view/12528.