Main Article Content
Families, especially parents, play an important role in promoting sexual and reproductive health among early adolescents. Thus, this qualitative descriptive study explored parents beliefs, practices and promotion of this topic with their adolescent children in urban areas of Northern Thailand. Data were collected during February 2018-February 2019 through family interviews with 28 biological parents of adolescents, aged 10-13 years, from 14 families, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Four categories emerged from data analysis. Category 1:Parental perceptions of the growing child (four sub-categories entitled Children are not ready to know about sex, Having appropriate gender roles, Sexual growth and changes in teenagers, and Focus on good genital hygiene). Category 2: Parenting practices to promote sexual health (six sub-categories: Playfully monitoring teenage friendships, Warnings about negative consequences of premarital sex, Observing changes during puberty, Advising on pubertal changes, Teaching genital hygiene practices, and Raising children to act appropriately to their gender); Category 3: Support for nurturing sexual growth (three sub-categories of adequate knowledge about sexual health, Comfort with family communication about sex, and Raising children with love and warmth); and Category 4: Constraints of raising a growing teenager (two sub-categories: Being ashamed of talking about sex, and Lack of knowledge and skills about sexual health).
Our findings provide rich and essential knowledge about how to empower parents to have adequate knowledge and skills to nurture the sexual and reproductive health of their growing teenagers. Findings also contribute to enhancing the development of parental and family interventions by nurses and other health professionals, aimed at promoting sexual and reproductive health of early adolescents.
Copyright: The Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, Thailand Nursing & Midwifery Council has exclusive rights to publish, reproduce and distribute the manuscript and all contents therein.
Steinberg L. Adolescence (11th ed.). Boston: McGrewHill College. 2017.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk behavior surveillance United States: 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,67(8). [cited 2020 Feb 1]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/data/yrbs/pdf/2017/ss6708.pdf
Bureau of Reproductive Health, Ministry of Public Health. Situations reproductive health in adolescents and youth in 2018. [cited 2020 Feb 1]. Available from:http://rh.anamai. moph.go.th/download/all_file/index/situationRH_2561_ Website.pdf. [in Thai].
Bureau of Reproductive Health, Ministry of Public Health. Teenage pregnancy surveillance report 2017. [cited 2020 April 10]. Available from:http://rh.anamai.moph.go.th/ewt_dl_link.php?nid=280. [in Thai].
United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA). Sexual and reproductive health of young people in Asia and the Pacific: a review of issues, policies and programs. 2015. [cited 2018 Feb 15]. Available from:http://www.unfpa.org/sexualreproductive-health.
Saskatchewan Prevention Institute. Parents as sexual health educators for their children: a literature review, in parents as sexual health educators. The Saskatchewan Institute. 2017:1–35.
Widman L, Choukas-Bradley S, Noar SM, Nesi J, Garrett K. Parent-Adolescent sexual communication and adolescent safer sex behavior: a meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(1): 52-61. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2731.
Modise MA. Parent sex education beliefs in a rural South African setting. J Psychol Afr. 2019; 29(1): 84-6. doi:10.1080/14330237.2019.1568047.
Manu AA, Mba CJ, Asare GQ, Odoi-Agyarko K, Asante RKO. Parent–child communication about sexual and reproductive health: evidence from the Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana. Reproductive Health. 2015; 12(1): 16-29. doi:10.1186/s12978-015-0003-1.
Muhwezi WW, Katahoire AR, Banura C, Mugooda H, Kwesiga D, Bastien S, et al. Perceptions and experiences of adolescents, parents and school administrators regarding adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues in urban and rural Uganda. Reproductive Health. 2015; 12: 110-26. doi:10.1186/s12978-015-0099-3.
Kajula LJ, Darling N, Kaaya SF, De Vries H. Parenting practices and styles associated with adolescent sexual health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. AIDS Care. 2016; 28(11):1467-72. doi:10.1080/09540121.2016.1191598.
Settheekul, S. Development of a community-based model for preventing sexual risk behaviors among adolescents [doctoral dissertation]. [Chiang Mai (Thailand)]: ChiangMai University; 2018. 152 p.
Dosler AJ. Raising children for a healthy sexual relationship in adulthood. In Mivsek AJ. Sexology in midwifery. IntechOpen; 2015; 21-32. doi: 10.5772/59084.
Department of Health, Ministry of Public health. Action Plan of The National Strategy on Prevention and Solution of Adolescent Pregnancy Problem B.E. 2560-2569 (2017-2026) of Act for Prevention and Solution of Adolescent Pregnancy Problem, B.E. 2559 (2016) Nonthaburi: Ministry of Public Health. 2017. [in Thai]. [cited 2020 April 15]. Available from: http://rh.anamai.moph.go.th/download/all_file/index/actionplan_tp/the-NationalStrategy-on-Prevention-and-Solution-of-AdolescentPregnancy-B.E.2560-2569(2017-2026).pdf
Widman L, Evans R, Javidi H, Choukas-Bradley S. Assessment of parent-based interventions for adolescent sexual health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr.2019; 173(9): 866-77. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.2324.
United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA). Sexual and reproductive health 2016. [cited 2018 Feb 15]. Available from: http://www.unfpa.org/sexual-reproductive-health.
Fongkaew W, Settheekul S, Fongkaew K, Surapagdee N. Effectiveness of a youth-led educational program on sexual and reproductive health for Thai early adolescents. Pacific Rim Int J Nurs Res. 2011; 15(2): 81-96.
Powwattana A, Thammaraksa P. The effect of learning medias to promote sexual communication among mothers with early adolescent daughters. Journal of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Bangkok. 2018; 34(1): 58-70 [in Thai].
Dittus PJ, Michael SL, Becasen JS, Gloppen KM, McCarthy K, Guilamo-Ramos V. Parental monitoring and its associations with adolescent sexual risk behavior: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2015; 136(6): e1587-e99. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-0305.
Do LA, Boonmongkon P, Paek SC, Guadamuz TE. 'Hu Hong' (bad thing): parental perceptions of teenagers' sexuality in urban Vietnam. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17(1):226-37. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4133-y.
Flores D, Barroso J. 21st Century parent-child sex communication in the United States: a process review. J Sex Res. 2017;54(4-5): 532-48. doi:10.1080/00224499.2016.1267693.
Malacane M, Beckmeyer JJ. A Review of parent-based barriers to parent-adolescent communication about sex and sexuality: implications for sex and family educators. Am J Sex Educ. 2016; 11(1): 27-40. doi:10.1080/15546128.2016.1146187.
Bello BM, Fatusi AO, Adepoju OE, Maina BW, Kabiru CW, Sommer M, et al. Adolescent and parental reactions to puberty in Nigeria and Kenya: a cross-cultural and intergenerational comparison. J Adolesc Health. 2017; 61(4S): S35-S41. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.03.014.
Svodziwa M, Kurete F, Ndlovu L. Parental knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards adolescent sexual reproductive health in Bulawayo. Intern J of Humanities, Social Sci and Ed. 2016; 3(4): 62-71. doi:10.20431/2349-0381.0304007.
Meechamnan C, Fongkaew W, Chotibang J, McGrath BB. Do Thai parents discuss sex and AIDS with young adolescents? a qualitative study. Nurs Health Sci. 2014; 16(1): 97-102. doi:10.1111/nhs.12072.
Fongkaew W, Meechamnan C, Thana K, Viseskul N, Chontawan R. Factors related to HIV-prevention communication between young adolescents and their parents. Thai J Nurs Res. 2015; 30(1): 112-22. [in Thai].
Powwattana A, Thammaraksa P, Manora S. Culturally-grounded mother-daughter communication-focused intervention for Thai female adolescents. Nurs Health Sci. 2018; 20(2): 214-23. doi:10.1111/nhs.12404.
Tipwareerom W, Weglicki L. Parents' knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to promoting condom use among their adolescent sons. Nurs Health Sci. 2017; 19(2): 212-19. doi:10.1111/nhs.12331.
Sandelowski M. Focus on research methods – Whatever happened to qualitative description? Res Nurs Health. 2000;23(4): 334-40.
Creswell JW. Qualitative inquiry research design: choosing among five approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications; 2013.
Lincoln YS, Guba EG. Naturalistic inquiry. London: Sage;1985.
Fongkaew W, Fongkaew K. My space, my body, my sexual subjectivity: social media, sexual practice and parental control among teenage girls in urban Chiang Mai. Cult Health Sex. 2016; 18(5): 597-607. doi:10.1080/13691058.2015.1091948.
Settheekul S, Fongkaew W, Viseskul N, Boonchieng W, Voss JG. Competitive sexual risk-taking behaviors among adolescents in Northern Thailand. Pacific Rim Int J Nurs Res. 2019; 23(1): 61-73.
Shah SK, Shrestha S, Maharjan PL, Karki K, Upadhayay A, Subedi S, et al. Knowledge and practice of genital health and hygiene among adolescent girls of Lalitpur Metropolitan City, Nepal. Am J Public Health Res. 2019; 7(4): 151-56. doi:10.12691/ajphr-7-4-4.
Morawska A, Walsh A, Grabski M, Fletcher R. Parental confidence and preferences for communicating with their child about sexuality. Sex Education. 2015; 15(3): 235-48. doi:10.1080/14681811.2014.996213.
Sooki Z, Shariati M, Chaman R, Khosravi A, Effatpanah M, Keramat A. The role of mother in informing girls about puberty: a meta-analysis study. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2016; 5(1): e30360-e70. doi:10.17795/nmsjournal 30360.
Canadian Urological Association. Foreskin care for boys. 2014 [cited 2020 June 23]. Available from:https://www.cua.org/themes/web/assets/files/patient_info/secured/en/pibw_15e-foreskin_boys.pdf
Gezova KC. Father’s and mother’s roles and their particularities in raising children. Acta Technologica Dubnicae. 2015; 5(1): 45-50. doi:10.1515/atd2015-0032.