Effects of Music Embedded with Binaural and Superimposed Beats Controlling Hypertension in Older Adults: A Quasi Experimental Study

Main Article Content

Sureerat Na Wichian
Jakkrit Klaphajone
Duangjai Phrompayak


               Hypertension is a leading cause of premature death and disability worldwide. Controlling blood pressure to within normal limit is the most desirable goal but difficult to achieve. This quasi-experiment study aimed to test the effects of music embedded with binaural and superimposed beats on control of hypertension. Fifty-two older Thai adults with hypertension were allocated into either the experimental (n = 26) or control (n = 26) group. The experimental group received music embedded with binaural and superimposed beats at home during the day for 30 minutes per day, for at least 3 days a week over 4 consecutive weeks, while the control group did not. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured 4 times; before the intervention and 30 minutes after, at the third week of the intervention, and one week after complete the intervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, mixed model ANOVA, independent t-test, and one-way repeated measures ANOVA.
            Results indicated that after one week of completion the program, participants in the experiment group had significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure than those in the control group, and participants in the experimental group had significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure than before receiving the intervention program. These results indicate that music embedded with binaural and superimposed beats is an efficient complementary treatment to improve blood pressure control among older adults with hypertension. Nurses and other health care personnel can use this intervention program along with medications to help older adults with hypertension to better control their blood pressure but research with a wider sample in different parts of Thailand is recommended.

Article Details

How to Cite
Na Wichian S, Klaphajone J, Phrompayak D. Effects of Music Embedded with Binaural and Superimposed Beats Controlling Hypertension in Older Adults: A Quasi Experimental Study. PRIJNR [Internet]. 2021Jun.15 [cited 2021Sep.28];25(3):345-58. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/PRIJNR/article/view/240945
Original paper


1. Public Health System Development Group, Bureau of Non-Communicable Diseases Department of Disease Control [Internet]. Campaign issues for world hypertension day of 2018. 2018 [cited 2018 October 22]. Available from: http://www.thaincd.com

2. Ramakrishnan S, Zachariah G, Gupta K, Rao JS, Mohanan PP, Venugopal K, et al. Prevalence of hypertension among Indian adults: results from the great India blood pressure survey. Indian Heart J. 2019;71(4):309-13. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2019.09.012

3. Imoun S, Kotruchin P, Techa-atik P, Mitsungnern T. Effectiveness of local folk musical therapy for blood pressure control in hypertension patients. NSH. 2018; 41(1):12-23. https://he01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ nah/article/view/109704

4. Khieophung J, Nicharojana LO, Intarasombat P, Krairit O. The effect of foot reflexology on quality of sleep in older persons with insomnia. RNJ. 2013;17(1):90-107 [in Thai].

5. Members AF, Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, Redon J, Zanchetti A, et al. ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2013;34(28):2159–219. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/eht151

6. Khaicharoen S, Phithaksilp M, Jaidee W, Prueksaritanond S. Effect of slow breath training program on the blood pressure in hypertensive patient, randomized controlled trials. BJM. 2017;4(1):9-20 [in Thai].

7. American Music Therapy Association. What is music therapy? 2018 [cited 2018 October 22]. Available from: http://www.musictherapy.org

8. Chotpanang A, Pattrapakdikul U. The effects of listening to favorite music on pain and vital signs in gynecologic patients after abdominal surgery. NJPH. 2016;26(2):43-53 [in Thai].

9. Chairinkam W, Thaikruea L, Klaphajone J, Lerttrakarnnon P. Effects of newly-developed superimposed binaural beat on anxiety in university students in Thailand: a randomised controlled trial. CMU J Nat Sci. 2019;18(1): 122-30.

10. Huang TL, Charyton C. A comprehensive review of the psychological effects of brainwave entrainment. Altern Ther Health Med 2008; 14: 38-50.

11. Mofredj A, Alaya S, Tassaioust K, Bahloul H, Mrabet A. Music therapy, a review of the potential therapeutic benefits for the critically ill. J Crit Care. 2016;35:195-9. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.05.021.

12. Seaward BL. Managing stress: principles and strategies for health and wellbeing. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers; 2011.

13. Salamon E, Kim M, Beaulieu J, Stefano GB. Sound therapy induced relaxation: down regulating stress processes and pathologies. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9(5):RA96-101.

14. Oster G. Auditory beats in the brain. Sci Am. 1973; 229(4): 94-102. http://doi.org/10/12982/CMUJNS.2019.0010

15. Klaphajone J. Music therapy, overview and neurologic music therapy. 2018 [cited 2018 October 23]. Available from: http://www.med.cmu.ac.th/dept/rehab/2010/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id= 111&Itemid=82&lang=th

16. Bajantri MR, Prasad BV, Kori A. Music therapy: an intervention in alzheimer’s disease. In: handbook of research on geriatric health, treatment, and care. Hershey: IGI Global; 2018.

17. Wiwatwongwana D, Vichitvejpaisal P, Thaikruea L, Klaphajone J, Tantong A, Wiwatwongwana, A. The effect of music with and without binaural beat audio on operative anxiety in patients undergoing cataract surgery: a randomized controlled trial. Eye. 2016;30(11):1407-14. https://doi:10.1038/ eye.2016.160

18. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research: principles and methods. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

19. Na Wichian S, Chintanawat R, Klaphajone J, Nanasilp P. Effect of music therapy on sleep quality in older persons. JTNMC. 2018; 33(3): 36-50.

20. Pfeiffer E. A short portable mental status questionnaire of the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1975;23(10):433-41. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1975.tb00927.x

21. Pirozzo S, Papinczak T, Glasziou P. Whispered voice test for screening for hearing impairment in adults and children: a systematic review. Br Med J Int Ed. 2003;327 (7421): 967-70. https://doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7421.967

22. Do Amaral MAS, Neto MG, De Queiroz JG, Martins-Filho PRS, Saquetto MB, Carvalho VO. (2016). Effect of music therapy on blood pressure of individuals with hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2016; 214:461-4. https://doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.03.197

23. Im-oun S, Kotruchin P, Thinsug P, Mitsungnern T, Techa-atik P, Pongchaiyakul C. Effect of Thai instrumental folk music on blood pressure: a randomized controlled trial in stage-2 hypertensive patients. Complement Ther Med. 2018;39: 43-8. https://doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2018.05.014

24. Toker E, Kömürcü N. Effect of Turkish classical music on prenatal anxiety and satisfaction: a randomized controlled trial in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. Complement Ther Med. 2017;30:1-9. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2016.11.005.

25. Meiner SE. Gerontologic Nursing-E-Book. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013.

26. Wang CF, Sun YL, Zang HX. Music therapy improves sleep quality in acute and chronic sleep disorders: a meta-analysis of 10 randomized studies. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;51(1):51-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK132939/