Effects of Traditional and Modified Arm Swing Exercise Programs on Blood Glucose and Nutritional Status among People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Secondary Data Analysis

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Sangthong Terathongkum
Ratchanok Phonyiam
Pattaraporn Koonmee


                People with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of diabetes complications. Optimal glycemic control is required and could be achieved by lifestyle modification, particularly through regular exercise. This quasi-experimental study used secondary data analysis to compare the effects of Traditional and Modified Arm Swing Exercise programs on blood glucose level and nutritional status among people with type 2 diabetes. Seventy-six people with type 2 diabetes were from two previous datasets and divided into three groups: 26 for the Traditional Arm Swing Exercise, 24 for the Modified Arm Swing Exercise, and 26 for the control group. Data were gathered using a demographic questionnaire and measurements of fasting capillary blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and for nutritional status, we measured body mass index, waist circumference, visceral fat and skeletal muscle using measuring tape, body composition monitor and blood glucose monitor at baseline and after the Programs. Data were also analyzed using t-test, one-way ANOVA, and ANCOVA.
                The results revealed that after the Programs both Traditional and Modified Arm Swing Exercise groups had statistically lower fasting capillary blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, waist circumference, and visceral fat, but higher skeletal muscle than before the Program. The Traditional Arm Swing Exercise group had a statistically lower average hemoglobin A1c when compared with the control group and also had statistically lower average waist circumference than the Modified Arm Swing Exercise and control groups. Average hemoglobin A1c and waist circumference were not different between the Modified Arm Swing Exercise and control groups. Results suggest that the Traditional Arm Swing Exercise is the most effective. Nurses can apply the Traditional Arm Swing Exercise Program to improve blood glucose and nutritional status in people with type 2 diabetes.

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Terathongkum S, Phonyiam R, Koonmee P. Effects of Traditional and Modified Arm Swing Exercise Programs on Blood Glucose and Nutritional Status among People with Type 2 Diabetes: A Secondary Data Analysis. PRIJNR [Internet]. 2021Jun.15 [cited 2021Sep.27];25(3):452-65. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/PRIJNR/article/view/241928
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