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Functional status decline is a frequent problem reported by people with liver cirrhosis. This causes difficulty maintaining defined tasks in terms of physical, psychological, social, and role functioning. Previous studies reported that several factors related to the functional status of people with liver cirrhosis. However, research results remain inconsistent, and the magnitude of relationships of each factor and functional status among people with liver cirrhosis is less likely to share information. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the pooled effect size of factors related to functional status of people with liver cirrhosis across studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in 2021 utilizing PRISMA guidelines to report the study. Databases including Ovid, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Google Scholar were searched. The studies published from the establishment of each database to February 2021 were reviewed. The quality of the selected articles was evaluated utilizing the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
Ten studies met the inclusion criteria, involving a total of 1,189 participants. Existing variables were categorized into nonmodifiable and potentially modifiable factors. Age, severity of disease, and hemoglobin levels were the nonmodifiable factors that had moderate relation with functional status. For modifiable factors, illness perception and fatigue, were found to have a moderate association with functional status. The findings indicate that healthcare personnel should emphasize minimizing fatigue and negative illness perception to improve functional status among people with liver cirrhosis. Those with older age, severe disease, and a low level of hemoglobin are more vulnerable to functional status decline.
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