Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Stages of Behavior Change in People Living with HIV: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study in Indonesia

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Bhakti Permana
Rieke Desti Legiana
Linlin Lindayani


               The interaction of smoking and HIV has a substantially negative impact on multiple comorbidities, disease prognosis, and impaired adherence to HIV drugs. The health benefits of smoking cessation are well documented among HIV-positive individuals. However, there are no clinical practice guidelines to guide tobacco smoking cessation treatment in people living with HIV. Addressing the current stage of change for smokers may help provide appropriate and effective advice on smoking cessation. This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of smoking and the stage of change in people living with HIV at an AIDS non-governmental organization in West Java, Indonesia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 150 participants aged over 20 years old. Data were collected on demographic and clinical information, smoking status, willingness to quit smoking and using the instrument of stage of change based on the Transtheoretical Model.
               Results indicated that most respondents were males, 30 to 40 years old. More than half (53%) were currently smoking more than ten cigarettes per day (55%). Among smokers, 80% were willing to quit smoking, and more than half were in the preparation stage. The majority of respondents (65%) had never heard about a smoking cessation program, and 91% had never joined this program. We concluded that more than half of people living with HIV were currently smoking, and most smokers were only at the pre-contemplation stage. Systematic screening for smoking during routine HIV care using the Transtheoretical Model “stage of change” model may help to reduce the heavy burden of smoking and smoking-related morbidity and mortality within HIV populations. In addition, smoking cessation training for nurses or case managers who care for people living with HIV is required to help, assist, and support HIV smokers in quitting.

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Permana B, Legiana RD, Lindayani L. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Stages of Behavior Change in People Living with HIV: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study in Indonesia. PRIJNR [Internet]. 2021Sep.3 [cited 2021Oct.17];25(4):666-7. Available from:
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