Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Job Satisfaction Scale for Thai Nurses in Primary Care Units


  • Karn Chaladthanyagid Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand.
  • Noppawan Piaseu Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Thailand.
  • Sunee Lagampan Faculty of Public Health, Mahidol University, Thailand.
  • Suwanna Junprasert Faculty of Nursing, Burapa University, Thailand.
  • Sang-arun Isaramalai Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.



Nurses, Primary Care, Job Satisfaction, Scale Development


Nurses are crucial in providing comprehensive care across age groups and healthcare dimensions in primary care services. In Thailand, there are primary care units with no physicians in most primary healthcare units. Thus, nurses' roles and practices in primary health are different from those of nurses in hospitals. In addition, workload, time spent on non-nursing tasks, unsafe working environment, limited opportunities for professional development, and living in rural areas may contribute to job discouragement. Measuring job satisfaction among these nurses may need a scale other than the scale based on nurses working in hospitals. This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Job Satisfaction Scale among 420 Thai nurses working in primary care units. The scale’s items were formulated by a literature review on nurse satisfaction, satisfaction measurement tools, conducting focus group discussions, and undergoing expert reviews. A two-round Delphi approach was employed to validate the content of the scales with three domains and 30 items. The initial scale exhibited acceptable content validity and reliability.

Subsequently, a psychometric evaluation was conducted using exploratory factor analysis to determine the construct validity of the scale along with its internal consistency and reliability. The results revealed five domains with 30 items comprising the working environment, the value of work, success and progress, work abilities, and work support and welfare. Finally, the commonalities of the 30 items were adequately explained by the instrument’s domains, with an acceptable internal consistency reliability of the entire scale and for the five domains. Therefore, the scale is suitable for assessing the job satisfaction of nurses in primary care units. However, further evaluation of the construct validity by other methods is needed in studies.


World Health Organization. Global strategy on human resources for health: workforce 2030. Geneva: WHO Document Production Services, 2016.

World Health Organization. Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention: global policy recommendations. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010.

Halcomb E, Smyth E, McInnes S. Job satisfaction and career intentions of registered nurses in primary health care: an integrative review. BMC Fam Pract. 2018;19(1):1-14. doi:10.1186/s12875-018-0819-1. DOI:

Acea‐López L, Pastor‐Bravo MdM, Rubinat‐Arnaldo E, Bellon F, Blanco‐Blanco J, Gea‐Sanchez M, Burnout and job satisfaction among nurses in three Spanish regions. J Nurs Manage. 2021; 29(7): 2208-15. DOI:

Alharbi J, Wilson R, Woods C, Usher K. The factors influencing burnout and job satisfaction among critical care nurses: a study of Saudi critical care nurses. J Nurs Manage 2016; 24(6): 708-17. DOI:

Mousazadeh S, Yektatalab S, Momennasab M, Parvizy S. Job satisfaction challenges of nurses in the intensive care unit: A qualitative study. Risk Management and healthcare policy. 2019: 233-42. DOI:

Al Sabei SD, Labrague LJ, Miner Ross A, Karkada S, Albashayreh A, Al Masroori F, Al Hashmi N. Nursing work environment, turnover intention, job burnout, and quality of care: The moderating role of job satisfaction. J Nurs Scholarship. 2020; 52(1): 95-104. DOI:

Liu Y, Aungsuroch Y, Yunibhand J. Job satisfaction in nursing: a concept analysis study. Int Nurs Review. 2016; 63(1): 84-91. DOI:

Lu H, Zhao Y, While A. Job satisfaction among hospital nurses: A literature review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2019; 94: 21-31. DOI:

Castaneda GA, Scanlan JM, editors. Job satisfaction in nursing: A concept analysis. Nurs forum; 2014: Wiley Online Library. DOI:

Suliman M, Aljezawi M. Nurses’ work environment: indicators of satisfaction. J Nurs Manage. 2018; 26(5): 525-30.

Lwandee P, Amrumpai Y. Job motivation and job satisfaction among nurses in Banphaeo Hospital Public Organization. Kuakarun Journal of Nursing. 2015;22(1):48-59.

Srisuphan W, Junthai K. Manual practice of registered nurse in health promoting hospital. Bangkok, Judd Thong Printing; 2013 [in Thai].

Chaladthanyagid K, Lagampan S, Piaseu N, Viwatwongkasem C, Auemaneekul N, Hong OS. Development and psychometric testing of the work performance scale of nurse at primary care units. Pacific Rim Int J of Nurs Res. 2020;24(1): 73-88.

Alharbi AA, Dahinten VS, MacPhee M. The relationships between nurses’ work environments and emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and intent to leave among nurses in Saudi Arabia. J Adv Nurs. 2020;76(11): 3026-38. DOI:

Zahaj M, Saliaj A, Metani L, Nika S, Alushi E. Factors related to job satisfaction among nurses. Eur Sci J. 2016; 12(5): 100-110. DOI:

Chupan S, Khumyu A, Vatanasin S, Vatanasin D. Factors influencing intention to stay in career among professional nurses. The Journal of Faculty of Nursing Burapha University. 2017;25(4):1-10.

Halcomb E, Bird S. Job satisfaction and career intention of Australian general practice nurses: A cross‐sectional survey. J Nurs Scholarship. 2020; 52(3): 270-80. DOI:

Kurt Ş, Demirbağ B. Job satisfaction levels of nurses working at public hospitals. J Org Behav Res. 2018; 3(2): 242-53.

White EM, Aiken LH, Sloane DM, McHugh MD. Nursing home work environment, care quality, registered nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Geriatric Nurs. 2020;41(2): 158-64. DOI:

Schlak AE, Poghosyan L, Liu J, Kueakomoldej S, Bilazarian A, Rosa WE, Martsolf G. The association between health professional shortage area (HPSA) status, work environment, and nurse practitioner burnout and job dissatisfaction. J health care for the poor and underserved. 2022;33(2): 998-1016. DOI:

Ayalew F, Kibwana S, Shawula S, Misganaw E, Abosse Z, Van Roosmalen J, et al. Understanding job satisfaction and motivation among nurses in public health facilities of Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nurs. 2019;18(1): 1-13. DOI:

Sriratanaprapat J, Chaowalit A, Suttharangsee W. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Thai Nurses’ job satisfaction scale. Pacific Rim Int J of Nurs Res.2012;16(3): 175-91.

McGLYNN K, Griffin MQ, Donahue M, Fitzpatrick JJ. Registered nurse job satisfaction and satisfaction with the professional practice model. J Nurs Manage. 2012; 20(2): 260-5. DOI:

Muya M, Katsuyama K, Ozaki F, Aoyama H. Development of a scale measuring the job satisfaction of J apanese hospital nurses. Japan J Nurs Sci. 2014; 11(3): 160-70. DOI:

Semachew A, Belachew T, Tesfaye T, Adinew YM. Predictors of job satisfaction among nurses working in Ethiopian public hospitals, 2014: institution-based cross-sectional study. Human resources for health. 2017;15(1): 1-8. DOI:

Lee BS, Eo YS, Lee MA. Development of job satisfaction scale for clinical nurses. J Korean Academy of Nurs. 2018; 48(1): 12-25. DOI:

Tsounis A, Sarafis P. Validity and reliability of the Greek translation of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). BMC Psychology. 2018; 6 (1): 7–12. DOI:

Yasin YM, Kehyayan V, Khraim F, Al‐Lenjawi B. Psychometric evaluation of the acute care nurses' job satisfaction scale‐revised. Nurs Open. 2023; 10(2): 488-97. DOI:

Suliman M, Aljezawi M. Nurses’ work environment: indicators of satisfaction. J Nurs Manage. 2018;26(5): 525-30. DOI:

DeVellis RF, Thorpe CT. Scale development: Theory and applications. (4th ed.). California: Sage publications, 2021.

Streiner DL, Kottner J. Recommendations for reporting the results of studies of instrument and scale development and testing. J Adv Nurs. 2014; 70(9): 1970-9. DOI:

Kyriazos TA. Applied psychometrics: sample size and sample power considerations in factor analysis (EFA, CFA) and SEM in general. Psychology. 2018;9(08): 2207-30. doi:10.4236/psych.2018.98126. DOI:

Creswell WJ. Qualitative inquiry & research design choosing among five approaches. (3rd ed.). California: Sage Publication, 2013; 145-177.

Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wikins, 2008.

Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL. Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education International; 2010.

Hamad Al-Qahtani A, Stirling B, Forgrave D. The impact of job satisfaction on nurses’ work lives: A literature review. QScience Connect. 2020; 2020(1): 1-11. DOI:

Lorenz VR, Guirardello EdB. The environment of professional practice and Burnout in nurses in primary healthcare. Revista latino-americana de enfermagem. 2014; 22: 926-33. DOI:

Almalki MJ, FitzGerald G, Clark M. The relationship between quality of work life and turnover intention of primary health care nurses in Saudi Arabia. BMC health services Res. 2012;12(1): 1-11. DOI:




How to Cite

Chaladthanyagid K, Piaseu N, Lagampan S, Junprasert S, Isaramalai S- arun. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Job Satisfaction Scale for Thai Nurses in Primary Care Units. PRIJNR [Internet]. 2023 Nov. 30 [cited 2024 Apr. 20];28(1):132-49. Available from: