Predictors of Unintentional Home Injury in Toddlers: An Empirical Test of A Causal Model

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Jirawan Klommek
Nujjaree Chaimongkol
Louise H. Flick
Aporn Deenan
Pairatana Wongnum


                   The purpose of this study was to test the Klommek Model of Unintentional Home Injury in Thai Toddlers, a model expanding the work of others. Most unintentional home injury to toddler studies have shown complicated interactions among child attributes, parental supervision attributes, and home physical hazards. However, no set of predictors of unintentional home injury has been clearly investigated empirically. This study’s sample consisted of 247 mothers of 1-3 year-old children living in Bangkok. Mothers were interviewed with seven questionnaires: A Demographic Questionnaire, Child’s Temperament for Injury Risk, Parental Protectiveness, Parental Supervision, Parental Tolerance for Child’s Risk Taking, Parental Fate Belief, and Unintentional Home Injury in Toddlers. Additionally, mothers’ homes were naturalistically observed, guided by The Home Physical Hazard Checklist. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and Structural Equation Modeling to explore direct and indirect effects on unintentional home injury risk in toddlers. Results indicate that child temperament had the greatest significant direct (positive) effect on unintentional home injury while parental supervision and protectiveness had significant direct negative effects. Parental supervision mediated the link between child temperament and parental protectiveness and unintentional home injury. Finally, a modified Model accounted for 37% of the overall variance in the prediction of unintentional home injury in Thai toddlers. In conclusion, while validation in other samples is warranted, these findings suggest that nurses and other health policy makers should target the caretakers of toddlers for education to prevent home injury.

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Klommek J, Chaimongkol N, Flick LH, Deenan A, Wongnum P. Predictors of Unintentional Home Injury in Toddlers: An Empirical Test of A Causal Model. PRIJNR [Internet]. 2015 Nov. 18 [cited 2022 Jul. 4];19(4):345-58. Available from:
Original paper
Author Biographies

Jirawan Klommek, RN, PhD Candidate, Faculty of Nursing, Burapha University, and Mission Faculty of Nursing, Asia-Pacific International University, Thailand


Louise H. Flick, DrPH, MSN, MPE, Professor, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, USA



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