Influences of Mothers’ Stressors, Maternal Depression and Parenting on Conduct Problems among Thai Preschoolers

Main Article Content

Nantiya Ekathikhomkit
Yajai Sitthimongkol
Tassanee Prasopkittikun
Rutja Phuphaibul
Pisamai Orathai


                  The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mothers’ stressors, maternal depression, and disrupted parenting on Thai preschoolers’ conduct problems. One hundred ninety-eight mother-child dyads were recruited from 8 schools under the supervision of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. Data were collected from October 2012 to May 2013. There were two main steps in the data collecting process: screening and collecting data. The participants were screened based on the children’s conduct-problems score. Data were collected via eight self-administered questionnaires; 1) Demographic data form, 2) Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire, 3) Everyday Stressors Index, 4) Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test, 5) Difficult Child Questionnaire, 6) Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 7) Parenting Scale, and 8) Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory and then analyzed using path analysis.
                There were significant indirect effects of the mothers’ stressors (i.e. daily hassles, marital satisfaction, and child difficult temperament) on child conduct problems through maternal depression and disrupted parenting. In addition, maternal depression and disrupted parenting independently affected child conduct problems. Thus interventions to reduce maternal depression and to improve effective parenting are essential to reduce conduct problems in preschool-aged children.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ekathikhomkit N, Sitthimongkol Y, Prasopkittikun T, Phuphaibul R, Orathai P. Influences of Mothers’ Stressors, Maternal Depression and Parenting on Conduct Problems among Thai Preschoolers. PRIJNR [Internet]. 2016 Jul. 11 [cited 2022 Aug. 18];20(3):210-24. Available from:
Original paper


1. Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (2009). Policy Paper: The chance of a lifetime, preventing early conduct problems and reducing crime. London: Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health. Available from

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mental Health Surveillance Among Children United States, 2005–2011. MMWR 2013; 62 (Suppl 2): 1-35. Available from

3. Woerner W, Nuanmanee S, Becker A, Wongpiromsarn Y, Mongkol A. Normative data and psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). J Ment Health Thai 2011 19(1): 42-57.

4. Stringaris A., Lewis G., Maughan B. Developmental pathways from childhood conduct problems to early adult depression: findings from the ALSPAC cohort. The Brit J Psychiat. 2014 205 17–23.

5. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Ridder EM. Show me the child at seven: the consequences of conduct problems in childhood for psychosocial functioning in adulthood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005 See comment in PubMed Commons below46 (8): 837–849.

6. Foster EM, Jones DE.The high costs of aggression: public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder. Am J Public Health. 2005 95 (10):1767-1772.

7. Webster-Stratton C. Stress: potential disruptor of parent perception and family interaction. J Clin Child Psychol. 1990 19 (4): 302-312.

8. Callender KA, Olson SL, Choe DE, Sameroff AJ. The effects of parental depressive symptoms, appraisals, and physical punishment on later child externalizing behavior. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2012 40 (3):471-483.

9. American psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (5th ed.) Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013.

10. Shaw DS, Shelleby EC. Early-starting conduct problems: Intersection of conduct problems and poverty. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2014 10 503-528.

11. Mash EJ, Wolf DA. Abnormal Child Psychology. (5th ed.). California CA: Wadsworth; 2013.

12. Hall LA, Rayens MK, Peden AR. Maternal factors associated with child behavior. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2008. 40 (2):124-130.

13. Clavarino A, Hayatbakhsh MR, Williams GM, Bor W, O’Callaghan M., & Najman J M. Depression following marital problems: different impacts on mothers and their children? A 21-year prospective study. Soc Psych Psych Epid. 2011. 46: 833-841.

14. Freeman KA, De Courcey W. Further analysis of the discriminate validity of the Parenting Scale. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2007 29 (3): 169–176.

15. Goodman SH, Rouse MH, Connell AM, Broth MR, Hall CM, Heyward D. Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2011 14 (1):1-27.

16. McIntosh E, Gillanders D, Rodgers S. Rumination, goal linking, daily hassles and life events in major depression. Clin Psychol Psychother 2010 17 33–43.

17. Allmann AES., Kopala-Sibley, DC., Klein DN. Preschoolers’ psychopathology and temperament predict mothers’ later mood disorders. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2016 44 421–432.

18. Krishnakumar A, Buehler C. Interparental conflict and parenting behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Fam Relat 2000 49(1): 25-44.

19. Kiff C J, Lengua, LJ, Zalewski M. Nature and Nurturing: Parenting in the Context of Child Temperament. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2011 14, 251–301.

20. Ramchandani P, Stein A, Evans J, O’Connor TG, the ALSPAC study team. Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: a prospective population study. Lancet. 2005 365 (9478): 2201-2205.

21. Bornstein MH. Parenting and child mental health: a crosscultural perspective. World Psychiatry. 2013 12 (3): 258-265.

22. Kline RB. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. (4th ed.). New York NY: Guilford Press; 2016.

23. Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective. (7th ed.). New Jersey NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2010.

24. Goodman R. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A research note. J Child Psychol Psychiat. 1997 38 (5): 581-586.

25. Hall LA. (1983). The Everyday Stressors Index (ESI). Available from pages/measures/Ages5to11/Everday% 20Stressors%20 Index.pdf

26. Locke HJ, Wallace KM. Short marital adjustment and prediction tests: Their reliability and validity. Marriage Fam Living. 1959 21 (3):251-255.

27. Radloff LS. The CES-D Scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1997 1 (3):385-401.

28. Collett BR, Gimpel GA, Greenson JN, & Gunderson TL. Assessment of discipline styles among parents of preschool through school-age. J Psychopathol Behav. 2001 23 (3):163-170.

29. Eyberg SM, Ross AW. Assessment of child behavior problems: The validation of a new inventory. J Clin Child Psychol. 1978 7 113-116.

30. Arnold DS, O’Leary SG, Wolff LS, Acker MM. The Parenting Scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychol Assessment. 1993 5 (2):137-144.

31. Lotrakul, M., & Lotrakul, P. (2000). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: SDQ. Available from https://

32. Wongvisetsirikul P. Relationship among personal factors marital relationship, social support, self-esteem, transition to motherhood, and post partumanxiety and depression in first-time mothers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. 1997.

33. Trangkasombat U, Larpboonsarp V, Haranond P. CES-D as a screen for depression in adolescents. J Psychiatr Assoc Thailand. 1997 42 (1): 2-13 [In Thai].

34. Carey WB, McDevitt SC. Revision of the infant temperament questionnaire. Pediatrics. 1978 61 (5):735-739.

35. Thomas A, Chess S, Birch H. (1970). The origin of personality. Available from sciences/sciliterature/origin_of_personality.htm

36. Jӧreskog KG, Sӧrbom D, Du Toit SHC, Du Toit M. LISREL 8: New Statistical Features. Chicago: Scientific Software International. 1999.

37. Sanders MR, & Woolley, ML. The relationship between maternal self-efficacy and parenting practices: implications for parent training. Child Care Health Dev. 2005 31(1): 65-73.

38. Arunothong W, & Waewsawangwong S. An evaluation study of parent management training (PMT) program in Northern Thai. ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry. 2012 13 (1): 31-48.

39. Auemaneekul N, Senaratana W, Juntarawijit, Y, Sripichyakan K, Ensign BJ. Participative model of child protection in Northern Thailand. Thai J Nurs Res. 2009 13(3): 216-226.

40. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. (9th ed.). Philadelphia PA: Lippincott Williams & Williams. 2012.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>