Main Article Content
Sweden has relatively high rates of adolescent pregnancy despite comprehensive sexual education for adolescents, and Thai adolescent immigrants are particularly at risk. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of adolescent pregnancy among Thai adolescents living in Sweden. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted in 2011, using a purposive sampling strategy to recruit male and female Thai adolescents (age 15-19). Eligibility criteria included: Thai-speaking; single; residing in Sweden ≥6 months but <5 years. Four focus groups were undertaken (N = 18). Each group was transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a manifest content analysis approach.Five different categories emerged in analysis: risk factors, preventative factors, negative consequences, factors for considering and ending pregnancy, and strategies for prevention. Participants perceived adolescent pregnancy as having negative consequences, including social perceptions within Thai immigrant communities of pregnant adolescents as “a bad person.” Participants identified family readiness, economic factors, maturity, and cultural influences, in particular related to Buddhist beliefs, as key factors in Thai adolescents’ decision-making about abortion when facing an unintended pregnancy. Although Thai adolescents residing in Sweden live in a sexually open society with comprehensive sexual education and youth services, they endorsed contraceptive myths and perceived adolescent sexual activity and pregnancy as stigmatized among their family and peers. Attention to family, peers, and contraceptive knowledge variables may be particularly important in sexual health interventions for this population group.
Copyright: The Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, Thailand Nursing & Midwifery Council has exclusive rights to publish, reproduce and distribute the manuscript and all contents therein.
2. Pradhan, R.; Wynter, K.; Fisher, J. Factors associated with pregnancy among adolescents in low-income and lower middle-income countries: a systematic review, J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015, 69, 918-924.
3. Klinthäll, M.; Lindström, M.; Linköpings, u., et al. Migration and health: a study of effects of early life experiences and current socio-economic situation on mortality of immigrants in Sweden, Ethnicity & Health. 2011, 16, 601-623.
4. UNICEF. Situation Analysis of Adolescent Pregnancy in Thailand: Synthesis Report 2015 Available from https:// www.unicef.org/thailand/160614_SAAP_in_Thailand_ report_EN.pdffor.
5. UNFPA. Motherhood in Childhood Facing the challenge of adolescent pregnanc, 2013.
6. Sivarnee. Thailand struggles to curb highest Teen Pregnancy rate in S.E. Asia. Available from https://ireport.cnn.com/ docs/DOC-987040for.
7. Johnston, W. R. Historical abortion statistics Sweden Available from https://www.johnstonsarchive.net/policy/ abortion/ab-sweden.htmlfor.
8. Sweden, S. Foreign-born persons in Sweden by country of birth, age and sex. Year 2000 - 2015 Available from https://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/ START__BE__BE0101__BE0101E/UtrikesFoddaR/? rxid=5d43389b-8de6-4ba3-a6b1-41fff36ae9c7for.
9. Haggstrom-Nordin, E.; Borneskog, C.; Eriksson, M.; Tyden, T. Sexual behaviour and contraceptive use among Swedish high school students in two cities: comparisons between genders, study programmes, and over time, Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011, 16, 36-46.
10. Strömbäck, M.; Malmgren-Olsson, E.-B.; Wiklund, M. ‘Girls need to strengthen each other as a group’: Experiences from a gender-sensitive stress management intervention by youth-friendly Swedish health services - A qualitative study, BMC Public Health. 2013, 13, 907-907.11.
11. Kånåhols, A. F.; Magnusson, H.; Alehagen, S. Swedish adolescents’ experiences of educational sessions at Youth Clinics, Sexual & reproductive healthcare 2011, 2, 119-123.
12. Beaumont, K., Maguire, M. Policies for Sexuality Education in the European Union Available from https://www.europarl. europa.eu/RegData/etudes/note/join/2013/462515/ IPOL-FEMM_NT(2013)462515_EN.pdffor.
13. Sweden, S. Number of persons with foreign or Swedish background (rough division) by region, age in ten year groups and sex. Year 2002 - 2015 Available from https://www. statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/en/ssd/START__BE__ BE0101__BE0101Q/UtlSvBakgTotNK/?rxid= 88124892-8c6f-41d7-9eef-1fabb79d7302for.
14. Haandrikman, N. A. W. K. Thai Women in Sweden: Victims or Participants?, Social Science Asia. 2014, 2(1) 13-29.
15. Thammaraksa, P.; Powwattana, A.; Lagampan, S.; Thaingtham, W. Helping Teachers Conduct Sex Education in Secondary Schools in Thailand: Overcoming Culturally Sensitive Barriers to Sex Education, Asian Nursing Research. 2014, 8, 99-104.
16. Sridawruang, C.; Pfeil, M.; Crozier, K. Why Thai parents do not discuss sex with their children: a qualitative study: Discussing sex in Thai families, Nursing & Health Sciences. 2010, 12, 437-443.
17. Tangmunkongvorakul, A.; Banwell, C.; Carmichael, G., et al. Use and perceptions of sexual and reproductive health services among Northern Thai adolescents, Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. 2012, 43, 479-500.
18. Patton, M. Q. Qualitative evaluation and research methods, Newbury Park, CA.: Sage Publications. , 1990.
19. Wibeck, V. Focus groups—on focused group interviews as a research method, Lund, Sweden, 2000.
20. Gott, M.; Hinchliff, S.; Galena, E. General practitioner attitudes to discussing sexual health issues with older people, Social Science & Medicine 2004, 58, 2093-2103.
21. Graneheim, U. H.; Lundman, B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness, Nurse Educ Today. 2004, 24, 105-112.
22. Jeanfreau, S. G.; Jack, L., Jr. Appraising qualitative research in health education: guidelines for public health educators, Health Promot Pract. 2010, 11, 612-617.
23. Francis, J. J.; Johnston, M.; Robertson, C., et al. What is an adequate sample size? Operationalising data saturation for theory-based interview studies, Psychol Health. 2010, 25, 1229-1245.
24. Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. Generalization in quantitative and qualitative research: myths and strategies. International journal of nursing studies, 2010.
25. Cherry, A. L., & Dillon, M. International handbook of adolescent pregnancy: Springer, 2014.
26. Childs, G. D.; Knight, C.; White, R. Never-pregnant African American adolescent girls’ perceptions of adolescent pregnancy, J Pediatr Nurs. 2015, 30, 310-320.
27. Ahorlu, C. K.; Pfeiffer, C.; Obrist, B. Socio-cultural and economic factors influencing adolescents’ resilience against the threat of teenage pregnancy: a cross-sectional survey in Accra, Ghana, Reprod Health. 2015, 12, 117.
28. Akella, D., & Jordan, M. Impact of Social and Cultural Factors on Teen Pregnancy, Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice 2015, 8, 41-62.
29. Mmari, K.; Sabherwal, S. A Review of Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health in Developing Countries: An Update, Journal of Adolescent Health 2013, 53, 562-572.
30. AL., H. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication, Nursing women’s health 2016, 20, 211-217.
31. Muhwezi, W. W.; Katahoire, A. R.; Banura, C., et al. Perceptions and experiences of adolescents, parents and school administrators regarding adolescent-parent communication on sexual and reproductive health issues in urban and rural Uganda, Reproductive Health 2015, 12, 110.
32. Jones, C. J.; Trickett, E. J.; Birman, D. Determinants and Consequences of Child Culture Brokering in Families from the Former Soviet Union, American Journal of Community Psychology. 2012, 50, 182-196.
33. Lazarevic, V.; Raffaelli, M.; Wiley, A. Language and Non-linguistic Brokering: Diversity of Experiences of Immigrant Young Adults from Eastern Europe, Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 2014, 45, 517-535.
34. Diana Lara, D., Decker, M., Brindis, C., Migration Patterns as a Contributing Factor to Teen Pregnancy in Five Rural Communities in California: Youth and Adult Perceptions. 2015.
35. Fernbrant, C.; Emmelin, M.; Essen, B.; Ostergren, P. O.; Cantor-Graae, E. Intimate partner violence and poor mental health among Thai women residing in Sweden, Glob Health Action. 2014, 7, 24991.
36. Leppakoski, T.; Paavilainen, E.; Astedt-Kurki, P. Experiences of emergency care by the women exposed to acute physical intimate partner violence from the Finnish perspective, Int Emerg Nurs. 2011, 19, 27-36.
37. UNFPA. Socio-cultural influences on the reproductive health of migrant women. Vietnam population Available from https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pubpdf/Migrant_Vietnam_.pdffor.