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KRAS is an oncogene located on the short arm of chromosome 12 (12p12.1). The gene is a member of the Ras family of small guanine nucleotide–binding proteins, first identified as a cellular homolog of a transforming gene in the Kirsten rat sarcoma virus.1 Activating mutations in KRAS have been noted in a variety of human cancers, including carcinomas of the pancreas, lung (non-small cell lung cancer), and colorectum (Table 1). KRAS mutations are frequently found in exon 1 (codons 12 and 13) and exon 2 (codon 61).2 Mutations in KRAS codons 12 and 13 have been associated with lack of response to EGFR-targeted therapies in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC)(Table 2).
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