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The treatment of chronic heart failure, particularly when due to systolic dysfunction, is built around therapies that have been shown to reduce long-term mortality and improve symptoms such as: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), beta blockers and aldosterone antagonists. More recent evidence-based management includes device therapy such as Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), Implantable Cardiovertor Defibrillator (ICD) or the Ventricular Assist Device (VAD).
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