Main Article Content
To determine the current level of serum vitamin D of adult Thai office workers in 2014 by using a standard laboratory method and its level in relation to sex, age, sunlight exposure and dressing.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross section study of 211 Thai office and field workers of one company performed in April 2014. The study used an electrochemiluminescence (or electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL)) method to determine their blood level of 25(OH)D. Their level of 25(OH)D then was analyzed against their age, sex, sunlight exposure time, and choice of clothing, using pearson coefficient.
Two hundred and eleven office workers aged between 23 and 63 years old were included in this study. Eighty one of these were male and 124 were female. Of these, 72.5% are aged between 31 and 50 years old. Ten percent of them are underweight, while 27.2% of them are overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2). One hundred and thirty four of them (63.5%) had vitamin D level > 20 ng/ml considered normal by Thai normal value rates. Seventy seven of them (36.5%) had vitamin D levels less than 20 ng/ml or had hypovitaminosis D by Thai normal value rates. There is no significant relation between vitamin D levels and age, sex, sunlight exposure time, and choice of clothing.
About a third (36.5%) of these Thai office workers were deemed to have hypovitaminosis D when measured against the standard normal value of 20 ng/ml upwards. The level of vitamin D from this study is much lower than previously estimated and will change the health promotion and disease prevention methodology for diseases related to hypovitaminosis-D in the future.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
2. Hyppönen E, Läärä E, Reunanen A, et al. Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study. Lancet 2001;358:1500-3.
3. Pittas AG, Dawson-Hughes B, Li T, et al. Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2006;29:650-6.
4. Krause R, Bühring M, Hopfenmüller W, et al. Ultraviolet B and blood pressure. Lancet 1998;352:709-10.
5. Merlino LA, Curtis J, Mikuls TR, et al. Vitamin D intake is inversely associated with rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:72-7.
6. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Hollis BW, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:1174-80.
7. Schleithoff SS, Zittermann A, Tenderich G, et al. Vitamin D supplementation improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:754-9.
8. Littlejohns TJ, Henley WE, Lang IA, et al. Vitamin D and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2014;83:920-8.
9. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22, 2009.
10. Holick MF, Biancuzzo RM, Chen TC, et al. Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:677-81.
11. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2010.
12. Soontrapa Sk, Soontrapa Sp, Pongchaiyakul C, et al. Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in eldery women living in the urban areas of Khon Kaen province, Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 2001; 84:S534-41.
13. Chailurkit L, Aekplakorn W, Ongphiphadhanakul B. Regional variation and determinants of vitamin D status in sunshine-abundant Thailand. BMC Public Health 2011;11:853.
14. Hattapornsawan Y, Pangsuwan S, Ongphiphadhanakul B, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in nurses at the Royal Irrigation Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai 2012;95: 1569-74.