Type of Mass Media Exposure Effects on ZIKA-Related Knowledge and Behavior among Pregnant Women in Thailand mass media, knowledge, ZIKA, pregnancy

Main Article Content

Issara Siramaneerat
Sarinthorn Mungkhamanee
Wannisa Raksamart
Supit Boonlab
Pimnapat Bhomkittipich
Wanjai Lamprom


OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of exposure to ZIKA information, knowledge and preventive behavior from mass media among pregnant women in a health district zone in Thailand.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample comprised pregnant women aged between 18-45 years old, from Health Promotion Center Region 5. The sample size was estimated using 95% confidence interval levels to appropriately represent pregnant women. Valid responses were collected from 395 participants. The sample selection was divided into two stages. First, we randomly selected four provinces from the eight provinces and then selected the district health promotion center in each province. Second, we selected a specific number of pregnant women using a proportional sampling selection. The total number of samples was 395 cases. Furthermore, a multivariate regression linear was applied to analyze the effect of the independent variables towards the dependent variable.

RESULTS: The study showed that occupation, mass media exposure from internet media and personal sources had a significant effect on ZIKA-related knowledge. Moreover, education level, pregnancy check-up, mass media exposure from electronic, print and personal sources had led to a significantly higher practice of ZIKA-preventive behavior. The independent variables showed the variation of ZIKA-related knowledge and preventive behavior of 11% and 31%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: These results show that mass media can play an important role in helping to prevent transmission of ZIKA. Mass media can bring positive results at the community level, which will often involve ZIKA discussions between families and neighbors, and eventually leads to changes in behavior.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Siramaneerat I, Mungkhamanee S, Raksamart W, Boonlab S, Bhomkittipich P, Lamprom W. Type of Mass Media Exposure Effects on ZIKA-Related Knowledge and Behavior among Pregnant Women in Thailand: mass media, knowledge, ZIKA, pregnancy. BKK Med J [Internet]. 2020 Sep. 25 [cited 2023 Dec. 6];16(2):118. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/bkkmedj/article/view/221680
Original Article


1. Cauchemez S, Besnard M, Bompard P, et al. (2016).Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 15: a retrospective study. Lancet, 387(10033): 2125-32.
2. Carvalho FH, Cordeiro KM, Peixoto AB, et
al.(2016). Associated ultrasonographic findings in fetuses with microcephaly because of suspected Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy. PrenatDiagn, 36(9): 882-7.
3. Abuelo D. (2007). Microcephaly syndromes. SeminPediatrNeurol, 14(3): 118-27.
4. Lamont RF, Sobel J, Mazaki-Tovi S, Kusanovic JP, Vaisbuch E, Kim SK, et al. (2011). Listeriosis in human pregnancy: a systematic review. J Perinat Med, 39(3):227- 36.
5. Van der Eijk AA, van Genderen PJ, Verdijk RM, et al. (2016).Miscarriage Associated with Zika Virus Infection. N Eng J Med, 375(10): 1002-4.
6. Meaney-Delman D, Oduyebo T, Polen KN, et al. (2016).Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus RNA in Pregnant Women. ObstetGynecol, 128(4): 724-30.
7. Driggers RW, Ho CY, Korhonen EM, et al.(2016).Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities. N Engl J Med, 374 (22): 2142-51.
8. Buathong,R.(2015).Detection of Zika Virus Infection in Thailand, 2012–2014, Am J Trop Med Hyg, 93(2): 380–3.
9. Ministry of Public Health. (2014).Zika virus disease, Bureau of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health.
http://beid.ddc.moph.go.th/beid_2014/sites/default/files/Situation%20Zika150560.pdf. Accessed December 7, 2016.
10. Boonchutima, S, Kachentawa, K, Limpavithayakul, M, Prachansri, A. (2017). Longitudinal study of Thai people media exposure, knowledge and behavior on dengue fever prevention and control. Journal of infection and public health, 10(6): 836-41.
11. Torvaldsen S, Kurinczuk JJ, Bower C, Parsons DE, Roberts CL. (1999). Listeria awareness among new mothers in Western Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health, 23(4):362-7.
12. Ogunmodede F, Jones JL, Scheftel J, Kirkland E, Schulkin J, Lynfield R.(2005). Listeriosis prevention knowledge among pregnant women in the USA. Infect Dis ObstetGynecol, 13(1):11-15.
13. Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., Taylor, C. B., Haskell, W. L.,Williams, P. Wood, P. D. (1990). Effects of community wide educationon cardiovascular disease risk factors: The Stanford Five-CityProject. Journal of the American Health Association,264 (3): 359–65.
14. Jeffery RW. (1995). Community programs for obesity prevention: the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Obes Res, 3(2): 283-88.
15. Bilenko N, Yehiel M, Inbar Y, et al.(2007).The association between anemia in infants, and maternal knowledge and adherence to iron supplementation in southern Israel. Isr Med Assoc J, 9:521–4.
16. Akeredolu IA, Osisanya JO, Seriki-Mosadolorun JS, Okorafor U. (2014). Mothers’ nutritional knowledge, infant feeding practices and nutritional status of children (0–24 months) in Lagos State, Nigeria, European. J Nutr Food Saf, 4(4):364–374.
17. Kline, K. N. (2003). Popular media and health: images, effects, and institutions.,NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 557-81
18. Whitney, R. Viswanath, K.(2004). Lessons learned from public health mass media campaigns: Marketing health in a crowded media world. Annual Review of Public Health,419–37.
19. Hesse,B.W.,Nelson,D.E.,Kreps,G.L.,Croyle,R.T.,Arora,N.K.,Rimer, B. K., &Viswanath, K. (2005). Trust and sources of health information: The impact of the Internet and its implications for health care providers, Archives of Internal Medicine,165, 2618–24.
20. Bertrand JT, O’Reilly K, Denison J, Anhang R, Sweat M. (2006). Systematic review of the effectiveness of mass communication programs to change HIV/ AIDS-related behaviors in developing countries. Health Educ Res, 21: 567–97.
21. Hansson M, Stockfelt L, Urazalin M, Ahlm C, Andersson R. (2008). HIV/AIDS awareness and risk behavior among students in Semey, Kazakhstan: a crosssectional survey. BMC Int Health Hum Rights, 8: 14.
22. Hay, J., Coups, E. J., Ford, J., &DiBonaventura, M. (2009). Exposure to mass media health information, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors in a United States probability sample. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 61, 783–792.
23. Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., Taylor, C. B., Haskell, W. L., Williams, P., .Wood, P. D. (1990). Effects of community wide education on cardiovascular disease risk factors: The Stanford Five-City Project. Journal of the American Health Association, 264, 359–365.
24. Luepker, R. V., Murray, D. M., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., Mittelmark, M. B., Bracht, N., Carlaw, R., Folsom, A. R. (1994). Community education for cardiovascular disease prevention: Risk factor changes in the Minnesota Heart Health Program. American Journal of Public Health, 84,1383–93.
25. Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation.(1995).Cohort results from a fouryears intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 85,183-92.
26. World Health Organization.(2015). The Kingdom of Thailand health system review Health Systems in Transition,5-6.
27. Pearson, E, S. Punpuing, A. Jampaklay, S. Kittisuksathit, A. Prohmmo.(2006).The Mekong Challenge. Underpaid, Overworked, and Overlooked: The Realities of Young Migrant Workers in Thailand, Volume 1. Bangkok: International Labour Office, 11-19.
28. R. V. Krejcie and D. W. Morgan. (1970).Determining Sample Sizes for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement: Sage Publications, 548.
29. Gunst, R.F. and R.L. Mason. (1980).Regression Analysis and its Application, New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc, 78
30. Thammatach-aree, J.(2016).Health systems, public health programs, and social determinants of health Thailand. Paper presented at the World conference on social determinants of health.http://www.who.int/sdhconference/resources/draft_background_paper10_thailand.pdf
Accessed December 12, 2016.
31. Thomas, C. (2001). Public understanding and its effect on recycling performance in Hampshire and Milton Keynes. Resour. Conserv. Recycl, 32(3): 259–74.
32. Yin,Z., Geng, G., Lan,X.,Zhang, L., Wang,S., Zang ,H and Peng, M. (2003). Status and determinants of health behavior knowledge among the elderly in China: a community-based cross-sectional study, BMC Public Health, 13: 710.
33. Niu TH, Meng XZ, Li XM, Dong LN, Li XY. (2010). Analysis on current situation and influencing factors of health knowledge among the rural elders. Chinese Primary Health Care, 24(3):37–8.
34. Li. DH. (2008). The survey and research of knowledge and the risk behavior of rural residents in Shandong with chronic diseases. Ji nan: Shandong University,49–50.
35. Huang WD. (2010). Sun PH: Analysis the related factors that affecting the elderly health. Chinese Journal of Gerontology, 30(11):1564–65.
36. Zhang Q, Li NX. (2007).Health-related knowledge and behavior of elderly residents in Urban Chengdu. Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Science Edition, 38(3):480–3.
37. Wang JH, Wang LM. (2007).The survey of knowledge attitude and behavior of elderly resident with different jobs. Chinese Journal of Clinical Healthcare, 10(4):401–2.
38. Maria De Jesus. (2003).The Impact of Mass Media Health Communication on Health Decision-Making and Medical Advice-Seeking Behavior of U.S.Hispanic Population, Health Communication,28(5):525-29.
39. Baker, L., Wagner, T. H., Singer S., &Bundorf, M. K. (2003). Use of the Internet and e-mail for health care information: Results from a national survey. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289:2400–6.
40. Hay, J., Coups, E. J., Ford, J., &DiBonaventura, M.(2009). Exposure to mass media health information, skin cancer beliefs, and sun protection behaviors in a United States probability sample. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatolog, 61: 783–92