Rapid Detection of Respiratory Pathogen 33 in Cases of Acute Respiratory Tract Infection

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Sawang Saenghirunvattana
Panpit Suwangool
Paulet Barro Ortiz
Chonticha Noomcharoen
Natsuda Wongkhot

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of respiratory pathogen (RP) 33 test for detecting specific RP that cause acute respiratory infection in a short turnaround time.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of RP 33 test was performed from June 2018 to June 2019 of twenty symptomatic participants aged > 18 years old, medical evaluation and laboratory test were carried out at OPD Chest Center in Bangkok Hospital and laboratory test should be conducted during the duration of the study. Subjects were immune-competent and manifested signs and symptoms of acute respiratory infections. Seventeen participants were subjected to additional tests such as blood culture and sputum culture, acid fast bacilli (AFB) test, bronchial washing, Influenza AB viruses, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Quantiferon test for a definitive diagnosis.


RESULT: All 20 participants were included in the study, 10 male and 10 female with a mean age of 64 ± 8.4 years. RP 33 test often takes a shorter turnaround time compared to microbial culture, a mean time of 20 ± 7.767 hours compared to 72 hours from sputum culture or blood culture as demonstrated on our test. Among the twenty participants there were twelve (60%) detected cases, five (25%) of which revealed multiple types of etiologic agent indicating co-infection. For bacterial etiology, nine cases were established: three cases of Staphylococcus Aureus were found, three cases of Klebsiella Pneumonia, one case of Streptococcus Pneumonia. Viral etiology was confirmed in nine cases, the leading pathogen of viral etiology is human Rhinovirus with three cases, two cases of influenza A virus, one case of influenza B virus, one case of Human Corona virus OC43, one case of human Parainfluenza virus 4 and one case of human Metapneumo virus A/B. There were eight (40%) cases of undetected results that needed additional diagnostic tests (sputum culture and sensitivity (Sputum C/S), acid fast bacilli test (AFB test), hemoculture and sensitivity (hemo C/S), bronchial washing, influenza AB&RSV and Quantiferon (TB QFT TB) test) to identify etiologic agent.


CONCLUSION: RP 33 test, a multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), provided a commendable implication. RP 33 test provided prompt and optimal diagnostic evaluations in ruling out etiologies of respiratory-related infections, particularly acute respiratory infections, thus delivering definitive and precise clinical care to patients leading to minimal usage of broad spectrum antibiotics.


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1.
Saenghirunvattana S, Suwangool P, Barro Ortiz P, Noomcharoen C, Wongkhot N. Rapid Detection of Respiratory Pathogen 33 in Cases of Acute Respiratory Tract Infection. BKK Med J [Internet]. 2020Feb.25 [cited 2020Apr.4];16(1):9. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/bkkmedj/article/view/239967
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