Main Article Content
OBJECTIVES: To examine life experiences of Thai Muslims living with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted with Thai Muslims in the South of Thailand. The research used purposive sampling to select participants for in-depth interviews. Thirteen participants who were diagnosed at least one year and able to communicate verbally in Thai were recruited. Data were analyzed by content analysis.
RESULTS: Three themes emerged from life experiences of Thai Muslims with T2DM: “Before diagnosis”, “When facing the diagnosis” and “Living with the unwelcome guest (diabetes)”. During “Before diagnosis”, the participants reflected the primary sign with major symptoms. For “When facing the diagnosis”, the participants reflected their feeling as “unwelcome guest” which referred to undesirable visitors who intrude into their home unexpectedly. It can be categorized in 3 sub-themes which were “unexpected”, “annoying” and “God sent”. In “Living with the unwelcome guest (diabetes)”; there were 3 sub-themes: “finding ways to get rid of the unwelcome guest” (various self-care behaviors in controlling blood sugar level), “discouraged by the disease” (lost their hope in fighting against their uncontrolled blood sugar levels) or feeling tired in taking control of food (when all the things that were done did not work), and “To bear it” (a feeling after being discouraged after unsuccessfully controlling the disease and deciding to ignore it or let it be).
CONCLUSION: These findings reflected that Thai Muslims with T2DM struggled with the disease, could not manage their life with it, and got less support from both family and the community. Thus, health care professionals need to provide cultural sensitive care specific for Thai Muslims.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
WH, W. F. F., Juni, M. H., Salmiah, M., Azuhairi, A., & Zairina, A. (2016). Factors associted with glycemic control among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. International Journal of Public Health and Clinical Sciences, 3(3), 89-102.
Amklang, W., & Muangsom, i. (2010). Effectiveness of an Empowerment and Social Support Programon Self-Care of Diabetes Type II Patients in Nong Rua District,Khon Kaen Province. KKU RESEARCH JOURNAL (GRADUATE STUDIES), 10(4), 87-96.
Piromchom, A., & Hansakul, A. (2012). Factors Influenced with Self-care Behaviors in Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Nongbuarawae District, Chaiyaphum Province. Journal of the office of DPC 7 khon kaen, 19(1), 1-10.
Chumnui, S. (2008). Factor of Blood Sugar Level Control in Diabetic Patient Type 2 Rongkam Hospital Rongkam District Kalasin Province. Journal of Health Systems Research, 1(3), 60-69.
Babazadeh, T., Dianatinasab, M., Daemi, A., Nikbakht, H. A., Moradi, F., & Ghaffari-fam, S. (2017). Association of Self-Care Behaviors and Quality of Life among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chaldoran County, Iran. Diabetes & metabolism journal, 41(6), 449-456.
Srivanichakorn, S., Supapon, S., Yana, T., Pipatsat, R., Derekbusarakom, O., Ritsriboon, P., & Bookboon, P. (2010). Knowledge management and synthesis of health promoting hospitals' practice guidelines : Health services management for diabetes and hypertension Nonthaburi: Health Systems Research Institute.
Chahardah-Cherik, S., Gheibizadeh, M., Jahani, S., & Cheraghian, B. (2018). The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Promoting Behaviors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. International journal of community based nursing and midwifery, 6(1), 65.
Office of Community Based Health Care Research and Development. (2012). Chronic disease management in the community : Findings from a discussion forum "Together We Build a Better Community Health System" Bangkok TQP printing.
Hu, J., Amirehsani, K., Wallace, D. C., & Letvak, S. (2013). Perceptions of barriers in managing diabetes: perspectives of Hispanic immigrant patients and family members. The Diabetes Educator, 39(4), 494-503.
Huangtong, s., Piaseu, n., & Kaveevivithchai, C. (2013). Case study, Persons with severe hypertension, Blood pressure control, Problems, barriers to blood pressure control. Ramathibodi Nursing Journal, 19(1), 129-142.
Abdulrehman, M. S., Woith, W., Jenkins, S., Kossman, S., & Hunter, G. L. (2016). Exploring Cultural Influences of Self-Management of Diabetes in Coastal Kenya: An Ethnography. Global qualitative nursing research, 3, 2333393616641825.
Drozd, M. (2000). Cultural sensitivity in diabetes care. Home Health Care Management & Practice, 12(5), 1-6.
National Statistical Office. (2012). Major findings from a survey of social and cultural situations 2011 Bangkok: Cabinet and Royal Gazette Publishing Office.
Kanokwong, O., Viriyapongsukit, S., Lojanapiwat, S., Sornsrivichai, V., & Limchaiarunruang, S. (2010 ). The synthesis of Health system under The Violence Crisis in Southern Border Provinces Area. Retrieved from http://kb.hsri.or.th/dspace/handle/11228/3014?locale-attribute=th
Tocharoenvanich, P. (2008). Primary care services management for diabetes in special areas (Pattani Yala Narathiwat Songkhla and Satun province). Songkla Health System Management Institute, Prince of Songkla University.
Nima, Y., & Hasuwannakit, S. (2008 ). Medicine and health care consistent with Muslim ways of life. Songkla: Health System Management Institute, Prince of Songkla University.
Roungrit, R., Malathum, P., & Prapaipanich, W. (2012). Perception towards Fasting and Self Care Behaviors of Thai Muslims with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during the Fasting Month of Ramadan. Ramathibodi Nursing Journal, 18(2), 207-222.
Sawatsri, P. (2013). Dietary Behavior and Oral Hyponglycemic Drugs Administration among Thai Muslim with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during Ramadan in Diabetes Mullitus Clinic, Nakhonnayok Province. Journal of Phrapokklao Nursing College, 24(2), 60-73.
Tangsangwornthamma, C., Hathirat, S., & Leelapattana, W. (2011). Lifestyle modification and drug administration among Thai Muslim patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 during Ramadan. Journal of Medicine and Health Science, 70-86.
Mansakul, T., Chansawang, W., & Petchruschatachart, U. (2018). Health Behaviors and Fasting Blood Sugar Levels of Muslims with Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Health Science, 19(5), 775-783.
Cheyoe, N. (2011). Drug using among diabetic patients with chronic renal failure during the month of Ramadan : Case study of Nongjik Hospital, Pattani Province Journal of Health Systems Research, 5, 506-512.
Wongpairin, A., & Suggaravetsiri, P. (2014). Assessment of Quality of Life among Islamic Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Satun Province, Thailand. KKU RESEARCH JOURNAL (GRADUATE STUDIES), 1686-1691.
Aschner, P. (2017). New IDF clinical practice recommendations for managing type 2 diabetes in primary care: Elsevier.
O'brien, T., & Denham, S. A. (2008). Diabetes care and education in rural regions. The Diabetes Educator, 34(2), 334-347.
Chantavanich, S. (2006). Data analysis of the qualitative research. Bangkok Chulalongkorn University
Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today, 24(2), 105-112.
Sornsuvit, C., Phosuya, C., Jaroonwanichkul, D., & Piriyachananusorn, N. (2012). The Use of Herbal and Dietary Supplements and Potential Interactions with Drugs in Patients with Chronic Diseases. Thai Pharmaceutical and Health Science Journal, 7(4), 149-154.
Choowattanapakorn, T., & Suriyawong, s. (2012). The View of Illness among Older Persons with Diabetes Mellitus Thai Journal of Nursing Council, 26(4), 96-107.
Grant, J. S., & Steadman, L. A. (2016). Barriers to Diabetes Self-Management Among Rural Individuals in the Workplace. Workplace health & safety, 64(6), 243-248.
Oba, N., Danyuthasilp, C., & Chairatana, S. (2008). Illness Experiences of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Nursing Science Naresuan University, 2(1), 78-90.
Idris Usman. (2012). Issues related to Muslim principles, beliefs and values. Retrieved from https://islamhouse.com/th/books/426424/
Wehbe-Alamah, H. (2008). Bridging generic and professional care practices for Muslim patients through use of Leininger’s culture care modes. Contemporary nurse, 28(1-2), 83-97.
Boonchom, A. (2006 ). Knowledge base for Muslim health and well-being Bangkok Faculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University.
Srisanga, K. (2005 ). Healing with the Medicine of the Prophet Bangkok Faculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University
Kongsomgan, A., & Therawiwat, M. (2012). Factors Affecting Blood Sugar Control Behavior Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Ramathibodi Hospital. Journal of Health Education, 35(1), 62-73.
Khema, M. (2008). Medicinal Plants Usage of Diabetic patients in Pra-ajarn Subdistrict, Ongkharak District, Nakhon Nayok Province (Master’s Independent Study). Chaing Mai University.
Kengganpanich, T., Leerapan, P., Kengganpanich, M., Nunthasen, K., & Lattanand, K. (2015). Factors related to Herbal consumption for controlling blood sugar of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, 31(1), 13-25.
Keeratiyutawong, P., & Hanucharurnkul, S. (2010 ). A Long Term Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of a Self Management Program in Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Ramathibodi Nursing Journal, 16(2), 293-308.
Jaam, M., Ibrahim, M. I. M., Kheir, N., Hadi, M. A., Diab, M. I., & Awaisu, A. (2017). Assessing prevalence of and barriers to medication adherence in patients with uncontrolled diabetes attending primary healthcare clinics in Qatar. Primary care diabetes.
Chanapa, P., & Kijkuokool, P. (2013). Stress and the Metabolic Syndrome. Songklanagarind Medical Journal, 3(5), 253-260.
Gutch, M., Razi, S. M., Kumar, S., & Gupta, K. K. (2014). Diabetes mellitus: trends in northern India. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 18(5), 731.
Vanaleesin, S., & Mamah, P. (2015). SELF-CARE OF NURSES BASED ON ISLAMIC SCRIPTURE THE JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSING AND MENTAL HEALTH, 29(2), 1-11.
Juntaveemueng, V., & Sungkachat, B. (2014a). Integrated Self-Care of Diabetes Patients: A Case Study in the Southern Thai Socio-Cultural Context (Songkhla Province). The Southern College Network Journal of Nursing and Public Health, 1(3), 15-35.
Chongchareon, W., Kahawong, W., Apichato, A., Sangchandr, O., Chukumneard, P., Boonsin, K., & Chugnan, T. (2008). A self-care promotion model for controlling blood sugar in type 2 diabetes. Songklanagarind Medical Journal, 26(1), 71-84.
Wongwiwatthananukit, S., Krittiyanunt, S., Sunthornthepvarakul, T., & Wannapinyo, A. (2004). Predictors of General Knowledge and Attitudes in Thai Diabetic Patients. Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 28(3-4), 157-172.
Dechma, J., Durongrittichai, V., & Kijtorntham, W. (2013). A study of predictable factors of diabetes mellitus complication in the community under King''s Nursing theory. Journal of public health nursing, 27( 2 ), 63-80
Mayberry, L. S., & Osborn, C. Y. (2012). Family support, medication adherence, and glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 35(6), 1239-1245.