A Survey of Stress and Impacts in Registered Nurses During the COVID -19 Pandemic

Main Article Content

Rungarun Gaesawahong
Nopawann Peasui
Orawan Warapapong
Thitaree Yongprawat
Nuntawan Dawudom

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To describe the stress in RNs during COVID-19 pandemic and the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic among RNs, and to gather needs and feedback from RNs during COVID-19 pandemic.


MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample was 1,073 RNs who provided services to patients with COVID-19. Data were collected through QR Code with the COVID Stress Scales (CSS) and open-ended questions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis.


RESULTS: The RNs had overall stress at moderate level (2.42 ± 0.63). Analysis of subscale revealed that Danger was the highest stress (2.92 ± 0.75), following by COVID Contamination (2.74 ± 0.75), Xenophobia (2.56 ± 0.90), Compulsive checking and Traumatic stress (2.34 ± 0.71), and SocialEconomic Consequence (2.12 ± 0.89). The four impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic were: 1) Work-life imbalance due to increased workload 2) Fear of infection and transmission 3) Inadequate organization support including supply of personal protective equipment and quality vaccines, information support, and unfair compensation in some hospitals, and 4) Ecological changes in both positive and negative directions.


CONCLUSION: Nurse leaders could provide adequate support for necessary equipment and information to the RNs so that they reduce danger-related stress. Compensation should be considered as appropriate for them.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Gaesawahong R, Peasui N, Warapapong O, Yongprawat T, Dawudom N. A Survey of Stress and Impacts in Registered Nurses During the COVID -19 Pandemic: . BKK Med J [Internet]. 2022 Sep. 30 [cited 2022 Dec. 4];18(2):106. Available from: https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/bkkmedj/article/view/258715
Section
Original Article
Author Biography

Rungarun Gaesawahong, Nursing Division, Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

บริหารการพยาบาล

References

World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID 19) Pandemic [Internet] updated 2020. (Accessed May 5, 2021 at https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019.)

Department of Disease Control. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 Situation the Centre for the Administration of the Situation due to the Outbreak of the Communicable Disease Coronavirus (COVID-19) [Internet]. Bangkok: Ministry of Public Health; 2021 (Accessed May 11, 2021, at https://ddc. moph.go.th/viralpneumonia/situation.php).

Department of Medicine Services, COVID-19 Treatment Guideline (Revised on 6th May 2021) [Internet]. Bangkok: Ministry of Public Health; 2021 (Accessed May 7, 2021, at https://covid19.dms.go.th/).

Department of Medicine Services, Document of Medical Guideline for Emergency Patient Care in COVID-19 Situation; 19th May 2020; University Hospital Network (UHOSNET), Ministry of Public Health, Thai College of Emergency Physicians, Bangkok; 2020. [Thai].

Sungkeaw S, Hanirattisai T, Srisatidnarakul B. Nurse Competency Patient care. Emerging infectious disease. J Thailand Nurs Midwifery Council 2020;35(3):69-86. [Thai].

Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, et al. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry 2020;33:1-4.

Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to corona virus disease 2019. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(3):1-12.

Firew T, Sano ED, Lee JW, et al. Protecting the front line: a cross-sectional survey analysis of the occupational factors contributing to healthcare workers’ infection and psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA. BMJ Open 2020;10:1-12.

Taylor S, Asmundsonb GJ. Coronaphobia: Fear and the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Anxiety Disord Res 2020;70:1-2.

Hammond NE, Crowe L, Abbenbroek B, et al. Impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on critical care healthcare workers’ depression, anxiety and stress levels. Aust Crit Care.2021;34:146-54.

Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, et al. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(5):1-25.

Xiao X, Zhu X, Fu S, et al. Psychological impact of healthcare workers in China during COVID-19 pneumonia epidemic: A multi-center cross-sectional survey investigation. J Affect Disord. 2020;274:405-10.

Tan BY, Chew NW, Lee GK, et al. Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Workers in Singapore. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(4).317-9.

Pakpour AH, Griffiths MD, Lin CY. Assessing Psychological Response to COVID-19: The Fear of COVID-19 Scale and the COVID Stress Scales. Int J Ment Health Addict 2020:1-4.

Taylor S, Landry CA, Paluszekb MM, et al. Development and initial validity of the COVID Stress Scales. Anxiety Disord Res 2020;72:1-7.

Kitpreedaborisut B. Social sciences research methodology, Tenth edition, Bangkok. Chamchuri Products;2008. [Thai].

Hammond E, Crowe L, Abbenbroek,et al. Impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on critical care healthcare workers’ depression, anxiety and stress level. Australian Critical Care 2021:34. 146-154.

Delgado-Gallegos J, Montemayor-Garza R, Padilla-Rivas G, et al. Prevalence of stress in Healthcare Professionals during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Northeast Mexico: A Remote, Fast Survey Evaluation, Using an Adapted COVID-19 Stress Scales.Int.J.Environ.Res. Public Health2020:17(7624).1-12.