Main Article Content
Purpose: To study the effects of a self-guided cognitive behavioral modification program on self-esteem and depression of elders with major depressive disorder.
Design: quasi-experimental research: pretest-posttest control group design.
Methods: Participants comprised 60 elders with major depressive disorder who were outpatients at the geriatric psychiatry clinic, Suansaranrom Hospital. They were selected using convenience sampling, and assigned to the experimental group (n = 30) receiving the self-guided cognitive behavioral modification program and the control group (n = 30) receiving usual care. The research instruments consisted of (1) Demographic questionnaire, (2) Self–esteem Scale, (3) Thai Geriatric Depression Scale, and (4) The Self-guided Cognitive Behavioral Modification Program. Each participant attended three sessions conducted over a total duration of four weeks. The reliability of the Self–esteem Scale was tested using Cronbach’s alpha Coefficient at .85 and the Thai Geriatric Depression Scale was tested using Kuder-Richardson 20 at .87 and were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test.
Main findings: The results revealed that after receiving the program the experimental group had a higher mean score of self-esteem (p < .001) and a lower mean score of depression (p < .001) than that before participating the program. When compared to the control group, a higher mean score of self-esteem (p < .001) and a lower mean score of depression (p = .005) were significantly found in the experimental group.
Conclusion and recommendations: The finding showed that the self-guided cognitive behavioral modification program could increase self-esteem and decrease depression of elders with major depressive disorder. Therefore, nurses should utilize the program to enhance self-esteem and decrease depression symptoms of elders with major depressive disorder.
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