Main Article Content
Purposes: This study aimed to compare the difference of smoking cessation beliefs and evaluation of consequence of smoking cessation and to examine relationship between beliefs and attitudes toward smoking cessation during the next six months among vocational students with nicotine addiction and non-addiction.
Designs: Descriptive correlational study.
Methods: Subjects were 632 students who were smokers and studied in vocational schools (1st - 3rd year) located in Bangkok, aged 15-24 years. A three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to identify the subjects. Subjects were given a set of questionnaires, which screened for nicotine addiction (CAGE questionnaire), attitudes toward smoking cessation, beliefs regarding the consequences arising from smoking cessation and evaluation of consequence of smoking cessation during the next six months. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test and Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficients were used to analyze the data.
Main findings: The findings showed that the students with nicotine non-addiction believed that quitting smoking helped them to have better health and body image than those with nicotine addiction. In contrast, the students with nicotine addiction believed that quitting smoking made them got more discomfort and irritate mood than the others. The correlation between attitudes and beliefs toward smoking cessation was positive (r = .42, p < .01). The correlation coefficients in students with nicotine non-addiction were higher than those in students with nicotine addiction (r = .48, p < .01; r = .30, p < .01).
Conclusion and recommendations: The specific beliefs toward smoking cessation of the students with nicotine addiction and non-addiction should be used to modify attitudes toward smoking cessation in vocational students. For smokers with nicotine non-addiction, issues on health and body image should be addressed while for smokers with nicotine addiction, issues on dealing with discomfort and symptoms from
nicotine intoxication should be emphasized.
Copyright Notice: Nursing Science Journal of Thailand has exclusive rights to publish and distribute the manuscript and all contents therein. Without the journal’s permission, the dissemination of the manuscript in another journal or online, and the reproduction of the manuscript for non-educational purpose are prohibited.
Disclaimer: The opinion expressed and figures provided in this journal, NSJT, are the sole responsibility of the authors. The editorial board bears no responsibility in this regard.
2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: A report of the surgeon general; 2014. [cited 2014 Mar 18]. Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/
3. Wattanasirichaigoon S. Textbook of tobacco control for personnel and health professional students. 1st ed. Bangkok: Network of health professional for no tobacco in Thai society, Thai Health Promotion Foundation; 2007. (in Thai).
4. National Statistic Office. Survey of smoking and drinking behavior in Thai population 2011. [cited 2014 Mar 18]. Available from: http://service.nso.go.th/nso/nsopublish/themes/theme_2-4-7.html. (in Thai).
5. Vathesatogkit P. The survey of behavior smoking of population 2004: National Statistical Office; 2004. (in Thai).
6. Fernander A, Rayen MK, Zhang M, Adkin S. Are age of smoking initiation and purchasing patterns associated with menthol smoking? Addiction [Internet]. 2010 Nov 8 [cited 2014 May 16];105 Suppl1:39-45. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03188.x/pdf
7. Ramajitti Institute [Internet]. Bangkok: The Institution; c2010 [cited 2014 Jan 5]. Project of monitor situation of substance in educational institution collaborative with office of narcotic control board; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.ramajitti.com/research_project_drug.php. (in Thai).
8. Bussaratid S, Siripaiboonkij A. Study of smoking cessation rate at smoking cessation clinic, Siriraj hospital, Thailand. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand. 2012;57(3):305-12. (in Thai).
9. Degahardt L, Hall W. Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease. Lancet. 2012 Jan 7;379(9810):55-70.
10. Sargent JD, Mott LA, Stevens M. Predictors of smoking cessation in adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Apr;152(4):388-93.
11. Oksuz E, Mutlu ET, Malhan S. Characteristics of daily and occasional smoking among youths. Public Health. 2007;121(5):349-56.
12. Prasomsak S. A study of the factors and effects behind the smoking behavioral patterns among private university students in Bangkok [research paper]. Bangkok: Saint John’s University; 2008. 13 p. [cited 2014 Jan 5]. Available from: http://www.stjohn.ac.th/department/university2007/research_new/pdf/001.pdf. (in Thai).
13. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General. [Internet]. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2012. [cited 2014 May 16]. Available from: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/preventing-youth-tobacco-use/exec-summary.pdf
14. Loatrakul M. Textbook of caring for persons with mental health problems and psychiatry for physicians. Bangkok: Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University; 2001. (in Thai).
15. Sajjathram N. Attitudes and intention of Ratchaphruek College’s students to stop smoking [Internet]. Bangkok: Research report; 2013 [cited 2014 Jan 5]. Available from: http://www.rc.ac.th/Library_web/doc/RC_RR/2555_PubH_Nontraree.pdf (in Thai).
16. Christopher AJ, Conner M. Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: A meta-analytic review. Br J Soc Psychol. 2001;40:471-99.
17. Fishbein M, Ajzen I. Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1980.
18. Ajzen I. Attitude, personality, and behavior. Bristol: J.W. Arrowsmith; 1988.
19. Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 1991; 50(2):179-211.
20. Fishbeins M, Ajzen I. Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley; 1975.
21. Naing L, Winn T, Rusli BN. Practical Issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Archives of Orofacial Sciences. 2006;1:9-14.
22. Vongsawas S. Theptein B, Trakulwong P, Tasee P, Inpaiboon S. Trend of risk behaviors in adolescent educated 2002-2004. Journal of Public Health and Development. 2005;3(1):9-22. (in Thai).
23. Vathesatogkit P. Essential statistic of Thai smoking. Bangkok: Action on Smoking and Health Foundation Thailand; 2004. (in Thai).
24. Ewing, editor. CAGE Substance abuse screening tool [Internet]. Baltimore, MA: Johns Hopkins Medicine, Johns Hopkins Healthcare; 1984 [cited 2014 Jan 5]. Available from: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/johns_hopkins_healthcare/downloads/CAGE%20Substance%20Screening%20Tool.pdf.
25. Suawongese C, Buasai S. Smoking behavior of Thai youths: A national survey. Nonthaburi: Health Research Institute; 1996. (in Thai).
26. Savvides EC, Christophi CA, Paisi M, Pampaka D, Kinnunen T, Connolly GN. Factors associated with intent to quit tobacco use in Cyprus adolescents. Prev Med. 2013 Dec 24.
27. Hutchins BV. Explaining intention to stop smoking with the theory of planned behavior and self-exempting beliefs [dissertation]. Greensboro (NC): University of North Carolina at Greensboro; 2012. 193 p.