Predictive Factors of Gestational Weight Gain in Overweight and Obese Women

Main Article Content

Pornnipa Deemongkol
Piyanun Limruangrong
Wanna Phahuwatanakorn
Dittakarn Boriboonhirunsarn


Purpose: To investigate the predictive power of age, parity, marital status, advice about overweight and obesity, and access to healthy food on gestational weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women.

Design: Predictive research design.

Methods: The sample consisted of 150 overweight and obese postpartum mothers who had antenatal care and gave birth at Siriraj Hospital. Data were collected by using a demographic information questionnaire, the receiving advice about overweight and obesity questionnaire, and the access to healthy food questionnaire. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and logistic regression.

Main findings: Age, parity and advice about overweight and obesity could predict gestational weight gain of overweight and obese women with statistical significance (p < .05). It was found that overweight and obese women aged under 25 years were 2.84 times more likely to have excessive weight gain than those aged 25-34 years (OR = 2.84; 95%CI = 1.01, 7.95). In addition, overweight and obese nulliparous women were 2.78 times more likely to have excessive weight gain than those who used to give birth before (OR = 2.78; 95%CI = 1.30, 5.93) and overweight and obese women who did not receive advice about gestational weight gain or received incorrect information were 3.33 times more likely to have excessive weight gain than those who received the advice with correct information (OR = 3.33; 95%CI = 1.58, 7.01).

Conclusion and recommendations: Age, parity and advice about overweight and obesity were able to predict the gestational weight gain of overweight and obese women. In particular, receiving advice, particularly when healthcare providers offer correct advice and promote appropriate healthy food consumption during pregnancy.

Article Details

How to Cite
Deemongkol, P. ., Limruangrong, P. ., Phahuwatanakorn, W. ., & Boriboonhirunsarn, D. . (2020). Predictive Factors of Gestational Weight Gain in Overweight and Obese Women. Nursing Science Journal of Thailand, 38(2), 46–58. Retrieved from
Research Papers


Deputy NP, Sharma AJ, Kim SY. Gestational weight gain - United States, 2012 and 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(43):1215-20. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6443a3.

Deputy NP, Sharma AJ, Kim SY, Hinkle SN. Prevalence and characteristics associated with gestational weight gain adequacy. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;125(4):773-81. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000739.

Sunsaneevithayakul P, Titapant V, Ruangvutilert P, Sutantawibul A, Phatihattakorn C, Wataganara T, et al. Relation between gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcomes. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014;40(4):995-1001. doi:10.1111/jog.12293.

Thanaratsiriworakul K, Suriya N, Sananpanichkul P. Comparison of gestational weight gain recommendations between study from Thai population and U.S. Institute of Medicine. Thai Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2016;24(3):161-8.

Krukowski RA, Bursac Z, McGehee MA, West D. Exploring potential health disparities in excessive gestational weight gain. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2013;22(6):494-500. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2012.3998.

Dennedy MC, Dunne F. Maternal obesity and pregnancy. In: Ovesen PG, Jensen DM, editors. Maternal obesity and pregnancy. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2012. p.99-117.

Kominiarek MA, Saade G, Mele L, Bailit J, Reddy UM, Wapner RJ, et al. Association between gestational weight gain and perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2018;132(4):875-81. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002854.

Rasmussen KM, Yaktine AL. Weight gain during pregnancy: rexaming the guidelines. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2009. 842 p.

Garmendia ML, Mondschein S, Matus O, Murrugarra R, Uauy R. Predictors of gestational weight gain among Chilean pregnant women: the Chilean maternal and infant nutrition cohort study. Health Care Women Int. 2017;38(8):892-904. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2017.1332627.

Heery E, Kelleher CC, Wall PG, McAuliffe FM. Prediction of gestational weight gain - a biopsychosocial model. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(8):1488-98. doi: 10.1017/S1368980014001815.

Jantradee B, Serisathian Y, Phahuwatanakorn W. Predictive factors of gestational weight gain. Journal of the Royal Thai Army Nurses. 2014;15(2):339-47. (in Thai).

Knight-Agarwal CR, Williams LT, Davis D, Davey R, Shepherd R, Downing A, et al. The perspectives of obese women receiving antenatal care: a qualitative study of women's experiences. Women Birth. 2016;29(2):189-95. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2015.10.008.

Deputy NP, Sharma AJ, Kim SY, Olson CK. Achieving appropriate gestational weight gain: the role of healthcare provider advice. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018;27(5):552-60. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2017.6514.

Siriarunrat S, Tatirat T, Deoisres W. Prevalence and factors affected to excessive gestational weight gain among pregnant women in the eastern part of Thailand. Journal of Public Health Nursing. 2018;32(3):19-36. (in Thai).

Liu J, Whitaker KM, Yu SM, Chao SM, Lu MC. Association of provider advice and pregnancy weight gain in a predominantly hispanic population. Womens Health Issues. 2016;26(3):321-8. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2016.01.004.

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG]. Committee opinion: weight gain during pregnancy [Internet]. Washington, DC; National Academies Press; 2009 [cited 2019 Feb 20]. Available from:

Peduzzi P, Concato J, Kemper E, Holford TR, Feinstein AR. A simulation study of the number of events per variable in logistic regression analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49(12):1373-9. doi: 10.1016/s0895-4356(96)00236-3.

Weisman CS, Hillemeier MM, Downs DS, Chuang CH, Dyer AM. Preconception predictors of weight gain during pregnancy: prospective findings from the central Pennsylvania women's health study. Womens Health Issues. 2010;20(2):126-32. doi: 10.1016/j.whi.2009.12.002.

Emery RL, Benno MT, Salk RH, Kolko RP, Levine MD. Healthcare provider advice on gestational weight gain: uncovering a need for more effective weight counselling. J Obstet Gynecol. 2018;38(7):916-21. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2018.1433647.

Green SH, Glanz K. Development of the perceived nutrition environment measures survey. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(1):50-61. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.004.

Laraia BA, Siega-Riz AM, Kaufman JS, Jones SJ. Proximity of supermarkets is positively associated with diet quality index for pregnancy. Prev Med. 2004;39(5):869-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.03.018.

Kriengsinyos W, Phanvijhitsiri K. Dietary advice for pregnant and lactating women. In: Food and nutrition knowledge for all ages. Nonthaburi: Food and Drug Administration; 2016. p.99-117. (in Thai).

Nithitantiwat P, Udomsapaya W. Food consumption behavior among Thai adolescents, impacts, and solutions. Journal of Phrapokklao Nursing College. 2017;28(1):122-8. (in Thai).

Thadakant S, Pruksacheva T, Jaovisigha A. Health perceptions of obese pregnant women with gestational diabetes and/or hypertension toward themselves and their fetuses. Ramathibodi Nursing Journal. 2010;16(2):185-99. (in Thai).

Laraia BA, Siega-Riz AM, Gundersen C. Household food insecurity is associated with self-reported pregravid weight status, gestational weight gain, and pregnancy complications. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(5):692-701. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.02.014.