Factors Predicting Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers

Main Article Content

Kinnaree Chaisawan
Yaowalak Serisathein
Chaweewan Yusamran


Purpose: This study was to determine the predictive power of age, perception of maternalcompetency, child care stress, and social support on postpartum depression in adolescent mothers.

Design: Correlational predictive design.

Methods: The participants consisted of 84 adolescent mothers who came to postpartum clinics orwell baby clinics for the vaccinations during the postpartum period of 6-8 weeks in hospitals affiliated tothe Ministry of Defense. Data were collected by using five questionnaires comprising of theDemographic Data Questionnaire, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Child Care StressQuestionnaire, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Center forEpidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale. Multiple regression was used for data analysis. According to aninitial analysis, 5 cases with outliers found in child care stress score were deleted. Thus, the total numberof subjects included in the data analysis was 79.

Main findings: The study results indicated that 41.67% of the adolescent mothers had postpartumdepression. Age, perception of maternal competency, child care stress, and social support could explain50% of the variance of postpartum depression in adolescent mothers (R2 = .50, p < .001). The factorsthat significantly predicted postpartum depression in adolescent mothers were perception of maternalcompetency ( β = - .39, t (78) = -4.45, p < .001) and child care stress ( β = .41, t (78) = 4.29, p < .001),while age and social support did not.

Conclusion and recommendations: The research findings indicate perception of maternalcompetency and child care stress as factors influencing postpartum depression in adolescent mothers.Therefore, nurses should assess maternal competency and child care stress in adolescent mothers. Whenrisks to postpartum depression are found, proper care should be given to prevent the depression.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chaisawan, K., Serisathein, Y., & Yusamran, C. (2011). Factors Predicting Postpartum Depression in Adolescent Mothers. Nursing Science Journal of Thailand, 29(4), 61–69. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ns/article/view/2851
Research Papers


Beck CT, Gable RK. Comparative analysis of the performance of the postpartum depression screening scale with two other depression instruments. Nurs Res.


Lanzi RG, Bert SC, Jacobs BK. Depression among a Sample of first-time adolescent and adult mothers. JCAPN. 2009;22(4):194–02.

Amphai S. Personal factors, maternal role adaptation and postpartum depression in primiparous adolescent mothers (Thesis). Bangkok: Mahidol University; 2007. 92 p.

Srisaeng P. Self-esteem, stressful life events, social support, and postpartum depression in adolescent mothers in Thailand (Dissertation).Cleveland, Ohio: Case Western Reserve University; 2003. 412 p.

Radloff LS. The CES-scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. J Applied Psychol Measure. 1977;1(3):385-01.

Posmontier B. Functional Status Outcomes in Mothers With and Without Postpartum Depression. J Midwifery & Women’s Health. 2008;53(4):310-318.

Gourion D. Events of life and links with severe depression at different ages. Encephale. 2009;35(7):250-56.

Hay DF, Pawlby S, Sharp D, Asten P, Mills A, Kumar R. Intellectual problems shown by 11- year-old children whose mothers had postnatal depression? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2001;42(7):871-89.

Weinfield NS, Ingerski L, Moreau SC. Maternal and paternal depressive symptoms as predictors of toddler adjustment. J Child Fam Stud. 2009;18(1):39-47.

Paulson JF, Bazemore SD. Parental and postpartum depression in fathers. JAMA. 2010;303(19):1961-9.

Birkeland R, Thompson J, Phares V. Adolescent motherhood and postpartum depression. JCCAP. 2005;34(2):292-00.

Honey KL, Morgan M, Benett P. A stresscoping transactional model of low mood following childbirth. J Reproductive Infant Psychol. 2003;21(2):129-43.

Kalil A, Spencer MS, Speiker SJ, Gilchrist LD. Effects of grandmother coresidence and quality of family relationships on depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers. Fam Relations. 1998;47(4):43-41.

Wahn EH, Nissen E. Sociodemographic background, lifestyle and psychosocial conditions of Swedish teenage mothers and their perception of health and social support during pregnancy and childbirth. Scand J Public Health. 2008;36:415-23.

Reid M, Glazener C, Murray GD, Taylor GS. A two-centred pragmatic randomised controlled trial of two interventions of postnatal support. BJOG. 2002;109(10):


Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research: generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008

Cohen J. A power primer. Psychol Bulletin. 1992;112(1):112-59.

Gibaud-Wallston J, Wandersman LP. Development and utility of the parenting sense of competence scale. Paper presented at American Psychological Association

Meeting, Toronto, Canada; 1978.

Soomlek S. A Causal model of maternal role mastery among first time mother (Thesis). Bangkok: Mahidol University; 1995.125 p. (in Thai).

Beck CT. A meta-synthesis of qualitative research. MCN. 2002;27(4):214-21.

Kim Y, Hur J, Kim K, Oh K, Shin Y. Prediction of postpartum depression by sociodemographic, obstetric and psychological factors: A prospective study. Psychiatry Clin Neurosciences. 2008;62(3):331-40.

Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley GK. The Multidimensional scale of perceived social support. J Pers Assess. 1988;52(1): 30-41.

Boonyamalik P. Epidemiology of adolescent suicidal ideation: role of life stress, depressive symptoms and substance use (Thailand). (Dissertation). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University; 2005. 422 p.

Trankasombat U, Larpboonsarp V, Havanond P. CES-D as a screen for depression in adolescents. J Psychiatr Assoc Thailand. 2540;42(1):2-13. (in Thai).

Tafet GE. Smolovich J. Psychoneuroendocrinological Studies on Chronic Stress and Depression. Annals of

the New York Academy of Sciences 2004; 1032: 276–78.

Leung SS, Arthur D, Martinson IM. Postpartum depression and related psychosocial variables in Hong Kong Chinese women: Findings from a longitudinal

prospective study. Res Nurs Health. 2005;28:27-38.

Beck AT. Depresson: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber;1967. 28. Knoche LC, Givens JE, Sheridan SM. Risk and Protective Factors for Children of Adolescents: Maternal Depression and

Parental Sense of Competence. J Child Fam Studies. 2007;16(5):684-95.

Power MJ. Stress-buffering effect of social support: A longitudinal study. Motiv Emotion. 1988;12(2):197-04.

Cheng S, Yusooff F. Investigating the moderating and mediating effects of dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem on the relationship between social support and

depression among late adolescents in Klang Valley Malaysia: A moderated mediation model. Int J Educ Inf Technol. 2010;2(4): 73-82.