The Parental Bonding Instrument (Thai Version): Psychometric Testing for Use in Adolescents with Depressed Mothers

Main Article Content

Nopporn Vongsirimas
Yajai Sitthimongkol
Nonglak Wiratchai
Linda Beeber
Sopin Sangorn


Purpose: To test for reliability and construct validity of theParental Bonding Instrument (PBI) – Thai version for use inadolescents with depressed mothers.

Design: Methodological research.

Methods: Data from a previous study of 460 adolescents withdepressed mothers were used to assess construct validity byconducting a confirmatory factor analysis through LISREL,and reliability by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.

Main findings: The analysis yielded satisfactory results ofchi-square = 302.30, df = 266, p-value = 0.062, RMSEA= 0.017, GFI = 0.96, AGFI = 0.93 The results support that thePBI consists of two components: caring and overprotection.Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.88 for caring and 0.80 foroverprotection components.

Conclusion and recommendations: Findings indicate thatthe PBI is a reliable measure for use in Thai adolescents withdepressed mothers. This instrument will be of great benefitfor use as an assessment tool for both research and clinicalpurposes.

Article Details

How to Cite
Vongsirimas, N., Sitthimongkol, Y., Wiratchai, N., Beeber, L., & Sangorn, S. (2011). The Parental Bonding Instrument (Thai Version): Psychometric Testing for Use in Adolescents with Depressed Mothers. Nursing Science Journal of Thailand, 29(3), 19–28. Retrieved from
Research Papers


Yoo HI, Kim BN, Shin MS, Cho SC, Hong KE. Parental attachment and its impact on the development of psychiatric manifestations in school-aged children. Psychopathology. 2006;39(4):165-74.

Enns MW, Cox BJ, Clara I. Parental bonding and adult psychopathology: results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. Psychol Med. 2002;32(6):997-1008.

Grotmol Kjersti S, Ekeberg O, Finset A, Gude T, Moum T, Vaglum P, Tyssen R. Parental bonding and self-esteem as predictors of severe depressive symptoms: A 10-year

follow-up study of Norwegian physicians. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2010;198(1):22-7.

Freudenstein O, Zohar A, Apter A, Shoval G, Weizman A, Zalsman G. Parental bonding in severely suicidal inpatients. Europian Psychiatry Doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy 2011.01.006.

Charoensuk S. Factors influencing depression in Thai adolescents. (Dissertation). Kentucky, University of Kentucky; 2005. 134 p.

Vongsirimas N, Sitthimongkol Y, Beeber L, Wiratchai N, Sangon S. Relationship among maternal depressive symptoms, gender differences and depressive symptoms in Thai adolescents. Thai J Nurs Res. 2009;13(3):


Hammen C, Brennan PA. Severity, chronicity, and timing of maternal depression and risk for adolescent offspring diagnosis in a community sample. Arch Gen Psychiat. 2003;60:253-8.

Slater MA, Power TG. Multidimensional assessment of parenting in single-parent families. In: Vincent JP, editor. Advances in family intervention, assessment, and theory.

Greenwich, CT: JAI Press; 1987. P.197-228.

Schaefer ES. A configurational analysis of children’s reports of parent behavior. J Consult Psychol. 1965;29(6):552-7.

Parker G, Tupling H, Brown LB. A parenting bonding instrument. Br J Med Psychol. 1979;52:1-10.

Parker G. The Parental Bonding Instrument. A decade of research. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1990;25:281-2.

Wilhelm K, Niven H, Parker G, Hadzi-Pavlovic D. The stability of the Parental Bonding Instrument over a 20-year period. Psychol Med. 2004;35:387-93.

Kay W, Niven H, Parker G, Hadzi-Pavlovic D. The stability of the Parental Bonding Instrument over a 20-year period. Psychol Med. 2005;35(3):387-93.

Murphy E, Wickramaratne P, Weissman M. The stability of parental bonding reports: A 20-year follow-up. J Affect Disorders. 2010; 125:307-15.

Gomez-Beneyto M, Pedros A, Tomas A, Aguilar K, Leal C. Psychometric properties of the parental bonding instrument in a Spanish sample. Soc Psychiatr Epidemiol.


Uji M, Tanaka N., Shono M, Kitamura T. Factorial structure of the Parental Bonding Instruments (PBI) in Japan: a study of cultural, developmental, and gender

influences. Child Psychiat Hum D. 2006;37: 115-32.

Mohr S, Preisig M, Fenton BT, Ferrero F. Validity of the French version of the parental bonding instrument in adults. Pers Indiv Differ. 1999;25(6):1065-74.

Terra L, Hauck S, Schestatsky S, Fillipon AP, Sanchez P, Hirakata V, Ceitlin LH. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Parental Bonding Instrument in a Brazilian female population. Aust New Zeal J Psychiat. 2009;43(4):348-54.

Qadir F, Stewart R, Khan M, Prince M. The validity of the Parental Bonding Instrument as a measure of maternal bonding among young Pakistani women. Soc Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005;40(4): 276-82.

Liu J, Li L, Fang F. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Parental Bonding Instrument. Int J Nurs Stud. 2011;48:582-9.

Murphy E, Brewin CR, Silka L. The assessment of parenting using the Parental Bonding Instrument: two or three factors? Psychol Med. 1997;27:333-42.

Hair JF, Anderson RE, Tatham RL, Black WC. Multivariate data analysis. NJ: Prentice- Hall; 2005.

Joreskog KG, Sorbom D. LISREL 8 user’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International; 1996.

Nunnally JC, Bernstein IH. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994.