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Objective: To study the incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in pregnancy and its outcomes between DM and non-DM pregnancies at Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital.
Materials and Methods: Descriptive, retrospective study. Research duration was from May 1, 2009 – May 31, 2011. Comparison of the adverse outcomes between 340 DM with 1,023 non-DM pregnancies using statistic analysis methods: independent sample t-test, descriptive statistic analysis and logistic regression analysis at p-value < 0.05.
Results: The annual incidences of DM in pregnancies from 2009 to 2011 were 1.78, 2.50 and 2.32 percent, respectively. Cesarean section, gestational age (GA) at delivery and birth weight > 3,500 gm were statistically significant higher in non-DM group (p < 0.05). Preeclampsia, neonatal hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and neonatal admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were significantly higher in diabetic group (p < 0.05). Pre-gestational DM, gestational diabetes mellitus A2 (GDMA2), gestational diabetes mellitus A1 (GDMA1) increased risk of mild preeclampsia (OR 2.14, 95% CI 3.67-19.77, OR 1.206, 95%CI 1.37-8.12, OR 1.12,95%CI 1.36-7.48), superimposed preeclampsia (OR 4.77, 95%CI 14.20-968.4, OR 2.82,95%CI 1.51-186.13, OR 3.58,95%CI 4.15-308.1), neonatal hypoglycemia (OR 2.70, 95%CI 7.88-27.67, OR 2.22,95%CI 5.26-16.13, OR 1.46, 95%CI 2.31-8.00) and RDS (OR 1.15, 95%CI 1.17-8.55, OR 1.36, 95%CI 1.86-8.1, OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.36-6.15).
Conclusion: The incidence of DM in pregnant women at Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital is low. Diabetic group was shown to have increased risks of preeclampsia, neonatal hypoglycemia, RDS and neonatal admission to NICU but not in cesarean section, GA at delivery and birth weight > 3,500 gm.