The Systematic Work Up to Identify Etiology of Non-immune Hydrops Fetalis: A perspective view of pathologist

Main Article Content

Patou Tantbirojn

Abstract

Nonimmune hydrops (NIH) is an important condition in health service. Many etiologies of NIH have been described, but the definite cause of NIH in many cases is still reported as “unknown”. This finding may be partly explained by the inadequate investigation. The article summarized the possible etiology of NIH and the needed investigation to establish cause of NIH from the view of pathologist.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Special Article

References

1. Cunningham FG, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, Dashe JS, Hoffman BL, Casey BM, Spong CY. Williams Obstetrics, 25 ed. New York: Mc Graw Hill Education; 2018.
2. Kajdy A, Materny A, Modzelewski J, Baszczeska J, Rabijewski M, Szymkiewicz-Dangel J. Spontaneous resolution of prenatally diagnosed isolated pleural effusion: An unusual early sign of a newborn disease. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2019;45:2466-9.
3. Kiyota A, Tsukimori K, Yumoto Y, Hojo S, Morokuma S, Fukushima K, et al. Spontaneous resolution of cystic hygroma and hydrops in a fetus with Noonan’s syndrome. Fetal Diagn Ther 2008;24:499-502.
4. Ismail KM, Martin WL, Ghosh S, Whittle MJ, Kilby MD. Etiology and outcome of hydrops fetalis. J Matern Fetal Med 2001;10:175-81.
5. Webb J, Delaney M. Red blood cell alloimmunization in the pregnant patient. Transfus Med Rev 2018;32: 213-9.
6. Karim F, Moiz B, Kamran N. Risk of maternal alloimmunization in Southern Pakistan - a study in a cohort of 1000 pregnant women. Transfus Apher Sci 2015;52:99-102.
7. Sankaralingam P, Jain A, Bagga R, Kumar P, Marwaha N. Red cell alloimmunization in RhD positive pregnant women and neonatal outcome. Transfus Apher Sci 2016;55:153-8.
8. Bellini C, Hennekam RC, Fulcheri E, Rutigliani M, Morcaldi G, Boccardo F, et al. Etiology of nonimmune hydrops fetalis: a systematic review. Am J Med Genet A 2009;149A:844-51.
9. Bellini C, Donarini G, Paladini D, Calevo MG, Bellini T, Ramenghi LA, et al. Etiology of non-immune hydrops fetalis: An update. Am J Med Genet A 2015;167A:1082-8.
10. Hofstaetter C, Hansmann M, Eik-Nes SH, Huhta JC, Luther SL. A cardiovascular profile score in the surveillance of fetal hydrops. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2006;19:407-13.
11. Jauniaux E, Maldergem LV, Munter CD, Moscoso G, Gillerot Y. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis associated with genetic abnormalities. Obstet Gynecol 1990;75:568-72.
12. Taweevisit M, Thorner PS. Hydrops fetalis in the stillborn: a series from the central region of Thailand. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2010;13:369-74.
13. Ratanasiri T, Komwilaisak R, Sittivech A, Kleebkeaw P, Seejorn K. Incidence, causes and pregnancy outcomes of hydrops fetalis at Srinagarind Hospital, 1996-2005: a 10-year review. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92:594-9.
14. Syridou G, Spanakis N, Konstantinidou A, Piperaki ET, Kafetzis D, Patsouris E, et al. Detection of cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and herpes simplex viruses in cases of intrauterine fetal death: association with pathological findings. J Med Virol 2008;80:1776-82.
15. Al-Buhtori M, Moore L, Benbow EW, Cooper RJ. Viral detection in hydrops fetalis, spontaneous abortion, and unexplained fetal death in utero. J Med Virol 2011;83:679-84.
16. Carles G, Lochet S, Youssef M, El Guindi W, Helou G, Alassas N, Lambert V. Syphilis and pregnancy. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2008;37:353-7.
17. Chisaka H, Morita E, Yaegashi N, Sugamura K. Parvovirus B19 and the pathogenesis of anemia. Rev Med Virol 2003;13:347-59.
18. Enders M, Klingel K, Weidner A, Baisch C, Kandolf R, Schalasta G, et al. Risk of fetal hydrops and non-hydropic late intrauterine fetal death after gestational parvovirus B19 infection. J Clin Virol 2010;49:163-8.
19. Enders M, Weidner A, Zoellner I, Searle K, Enders G. Fetal morbidity and mortality after acute human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy: prospective evaluation of 1018 cases. Prenat Diagn 2004;24:513-8.
20. Attar MA, Donn SM. Congenital chylothorax. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2017;22:234-9.
21. Downie L, Sasi A, Malhotra A. Congenital chylothorax: associations and neonatal outcomes. J Paediatr Child Health 2014;50:234-8.
22. Fischbach H, Schwarz R, Müller WD, Kellner A. A new type of congenital nephrotic syndrome. Pathol Res Pract 1978;163:387-94.
23. Albano G, Pugliese A, Stabile M, Sirimarco F, Arsieri R. Hydrops foetalis caused by hepatic haemangioma. Acta Paediatr 1998;87:1307-9.
24. Sivasli E, Tekşam O, Haliloğlu M, Güçer S, Orhan D, Gürgey A, et al. Hydrops fetalis associated with chorioangioma and thrombosis of umbilical vein. Turk J Pediatr 2009;51:515-8.
25. Merry-Sperry AD, Chaffin DG, Denning KL, Shamma B, Massey C, Werthammer J. Placental chorioangioma with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. South Med J 2018;111:457-9.
26. Whybra C, Mengel E, Russo A, Bahlmann F, Kampmann C, Beck M, et al. Lysosomal storage disorder in non-immunological hydrops fetalis (NIHF): more common than assumed? Report of four cases with transient NIHF and a review of the literature. Orphanet J Rare Dis 2012;7:86.
27. Gimovsky AC, Luzi P, Berghella V. Lysomal storage diseases as an etiology of non-immune hydrops. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;212:281-90.
28. Gort L, Granell MR, Fernández G, Carreto P, Sanchez A, Coll MJ. Fast protocol for the diagnosis of lysosomal diseases in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Prenat Diagn 2012;32:1139-42.
29. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM); Norton ME, Chauhan SP, Dashe JS. Society for maternal-fetal medicine (SMFM) clinical guideline #7: nonimmune hydrops fetalis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;212:127-39.
30. Désilets V, De Bie I, Audibert F. No. 363-Investigation and management of non-immune fetal hydrops. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2018;40:1077-90.
31. Mendelson E, Aboudy Y, Smetana Z, Tepperberg M, Grossman Z. Laboratory assessment and diagnosis of congenital viral infections: Rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), parvovirus B19 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Reprod Toxicol 2006;21:350-82.
32. Désilets V, Audibert F; Society of Obstetrician and Gynecologists of Canada. Investigation and management of non-immune fetal hydrops. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013;35:923-38.
33. Rodriguez MM, Bruce JH, Jimenez XF, Romaguera RL, Bancalari E, García OL, et al. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis in the liveborn: series of 32 autopsies. Pediatr Dev Pathol 2005;8:369-78.