Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Prognostic Markers in Pregnant Women during the First and Second Wave of COVID-19 in India

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Seema Chigateri
Suchith Hoblidar
Suma S Moni
Rathnamala M Desai
Carol R Luke


Objectives: The world is experiencing unprecedented challenges from the coronavirus pandemic. There is a sparse data on Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in pregnant women from India, especially during the second wave. We aimed to compare maternal clinical characteristics and prognostic markers during first and second waves of COVID-19 and to know the correlation of the laboratory markers with disease severity and to assess maternal and perinatal outcomes.
Materials and Methods: This prospective study of COVID-19 positive pregnant women was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in India from the 1st of August 2020 to the 30th of June 2021. Data on epidemiological history, clinical presentation, laboratory results, and maternal-fetal outcome in the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic were collected and analyzed.
Results: One hundred eighteen patients participated in our study, with 64 belonging to the 1st wave and 54 in the 2nd wave. Fever and sore throat were common presenting symptoms, most women with bronchial asthma and cardiac disease progressed to severe/ critical illness. C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05 in both waves), ferritin (p < 0.01 in 2nd wave), and procalcitonin (p < 0.05 in 1st wave) positively correlated with the severity of the disease.
Conclusion: Our study showed that the clinical characteristics and severity of the disease did not differ significantly in both the waves. The adverse fetal outcome was significantly more in mothers with severe and critical disease. Laboratory markers correlated significantly with the severity of the maternal disease, hence can be used as prognostic indicators.


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