Antimicrobial resistant profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from pork and butcher shops AMR E. coli from pork and butcher shops

Main Article Content

Pramualchai Ketkhao
Sukanya Thongratsakul
Chaithep Poolkhet
Worawidh Wajjwalku
Patamabhorn Amavisit

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistant profiles of E. coli isolated from pork meat and environment samples of six retail butcher shops in Bangkok, Thailand, were studied. Of the total samples, 73.3% were positive for Salmonella spp. and 86.7% were positive for E. coli. E. coli were tested for the minimum inhibitory concentrations against 12 antimicrobial agents that are commonly prescribed for infection in humans. The resistances to quinolones comprising of moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin were 15.4% and 11.5%, respectively. The β-lactams resistance was observed at less frequent rates at 9.6% for cefotaxime, 3.8% for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 3.8% for cefoxitin, and 1.9% for ceftazidime, but all isolates were sensitive to cefoperazone/sulbactam and cefpirome. Furthermore, 11.5% of the isolates produced ESBL enzymes. Aminoglycosides resistance was observed for gentamycin at 17.3% while amikacin resistance (0%) was not found. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed the highest resistance at 57.7%. Only one colistin resistant isolate (MIC at 8 µg/ml) was found, but it did not carry the plasmid mediated colistin resistance genes mcr-1 and mcr-2.  Amplifying the gene integrase 1 (intI1), 3.9% of the isolates yielded positive PCRs. In this study, the antimicrobial resistant rates of E. coli from pork meat and markets were relatively low and mcr genes were not yet distributed in the tested E. coli

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ketkhao, P., Thongratsakul, S., Poolkhet, C., Wajjwalku, W., & Amavisit, P. (2019). Antimicrobial resistant profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from pork and butcher shops: AMR E. coli from pork and butcher shops. Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 17(1), 11–20. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/vis/article/view/136230
Section
Research Articles
Author Biography

Patamabhorn Amavisit, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Associate Professor,

Department of Microbiology and Immunology,

References

Bangtrakulnonth, A., Pornreongwong, S., Pulsrikarn, C., Sawanpanyalert, P., Hendriksen, R.S., Lo Fo Wong, D.M.A., Aarestrup, F.M. 2004. Salmonella Serovars from Humans and Other Sources in Thailand, 1993-2002. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10, 131–136.
Borowiak, M., Fischer, J., Hammerl, J.A., Hendriksen, R.S., Szabo, I., Malorny, B. 2017. Identification of a novel transposon-associated phosphoethanolamine transferase gene, mcr-5, conferring colistin resistance in d-tartrate fermenting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 72, 3317–3324.
Carattoli, A., Villa, L., Feudi, C., Curcio, L., Orsini, S., Luppi, A., Pezzotti, G., Magistrali, C.F. 2017. Novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mcr-4 gene in Salmonella and Escherichia coli, Italy 2013, Spain and Belgium, 2015 to 2016. Euro. Surveill. 22, 30589.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2014. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; 24th Informational Supplement. M100-S24. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Wayne. PA.
Department of Livestock Development (DLD). 2017. Strict controls on the use of colistin on farms. 8 February 2017. (In Thai)
Grimont, P.A.D., and Weill, F.X. 2007. Antigenic formulae of the Salmonella serovars, (9th ed.). World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Salmonella, Institute Pasteur. Paris. France.
International Organization for Standardization. 2014. ISO 9308-1:2014. Water quality -- Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria -- Part 1: Membrane filtration method for waters with low bacterial background flora. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva. Switzerland.
International Organization for Standardization. 2007. ISO 6579:2007. Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs -- Horizontal method for the detection of Salmonella spp. International Organization for Standardization. Geneva. Switzerland.
Kempf, I., Jouy, E., Chauvin, C. 2016. Colistin use and colistin resistance in bacteria from animals. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 48, 598–606.
Liu, Y.Y., Wang, Y., Walsh, T.R., Yi, L.X., Zhang, R., Spencer, J., Doi, Y., Tian, G., Dong, B., Huang, X., Yu, L.-F., Gu, D., Ren, H., Chen, X., Lv, L., He, D., Zhou, H., Liang, Z., Liu, J.H., Shen, J. 2016. Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study. Lancet Infect. Dis. 16, 161–168.
Magiorakos, A.P., Srinivasan, A., Carey, R.B., Carmeli, Y., Falagas, M.E., Giske, C.G., Harbarth, S., Hindler, J.F., Kahlmeter, G., Olsson-Liljequist, B., Paterson, D.L., Rice, L.B., Stelling, J., Struelens, M.J., Vatopoulos, A., Weber, J.T., Monnet, D.L. 2012. Multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacteria: an international expert proposal for interim standard definitions for acquired resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 18, 268–281.
Nightingale, C.H. 2000. Moxifloxacin, a new antibiotic designed to treat community-acquired respiratory tract infections: a review of microbiologic and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic characteristics. Pharmacotherapy. 20, 245–256.
Sanguankiat, A., Pinthong, R., Padungtod, P., Baumann, M., Zessin, K.H., Srikitjakarn, L., Fries, R. 2010. A Cross-Sectional Study of Salmonella in Pork Products in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 7, 873–878.
Shaikh, S., Fatima, J., Shakil, S., Rizvi, S.M.D., Kamal, M.A. 2015. Antibiotic resistance and extended spectrum beta-lactamases: Types, epidemiology and treatment. Saudi J. Biol. Sci. 22, 90–101.
Shibata, N., Doi, Y., Yamane, K., Yagi, T., Kurokawa, H., Shibayama, K., Kato, H., Kai, K., Arakawa, Y. 2003. PCR typing of genetic determinants for metallo-beta-lactamases and integrases carried by gram-negative bacteria isolated in Japan, with focus on the class 3 integron. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41, 5407–5413.
Sinwat, N., Angkittitrakul, S., Coulson, K.F., Pilapil, F.M.I.R., Meunsene, D., Chuanchuen, R. 2016. High prevalence and molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces. J. Med. Microbiol. 65, 1182–1193.
Thanapongtharm, W., Linard, C., Chinson, P., Kasemsuwan, S., Visser, M., Gaughan, A.E., Epprech, M., Robinson, T.P., Gilbert, M. 2016. Spatial analysis and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand. BMC Vet. Res. 12, 218.
Vindigni, S.M., Srijan, A., Wongstitwilairoong, B., Marcus, R., Meek, J., Riley, P.L., Mason, C. 2007. Prevalence of foodborne microorganisms in retail foods in Thailand. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 4, 208–215.
World Health Organization (WHO). 2003. Joint FAO/OIE/WHO Expert Workshop on Non-Human Antimicrobial Usage and Antimicrobial Resistance: Scientific assessment. [Online] Available: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/68883/1/WHO_CDS_CPE_ZFK_2004.7.pdf. (January 16, 2018).
World Health Organization (WHO). 2017. Critically important antimicrobials for human medicine, 5th revision 2016 World Health Organization. [Online] Available: https://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/antimicrobials-fifth/en/. (May 22, 2018).
Xavier, B.B., Lammens, C., Ruhal, R., Kumar-Singh, S., Butaye, P., Goossens, H., Malhotra-Kumar, S. 2016. Identification of a novel plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene, mcr-2, in Escherichia coli, Belgium, June 2016. Euro. Surveill. 21. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.27.30280.
Yin, W., Li, H., Shen, Y., Liu, Z., Wang, S., Shen, Z., Zhang, R., Walsh, T.R., Shen, J., Wang, Y. 2017. Novel plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-3 in Escherichia coli. MBio. 8, e00543-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00543-17.