Animal-level factors affecting the results of the first single intradermal test for bovine tuberculosis in dairy calves in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Main Article Content

Tawatchai Singhla
Sukolrat Boonyayatra
Scott J. Wells


The objective of this study was to identify animal-level factors affecting bovine tuberculosis (bTB) status as determined by the single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test firstly applied to 1 year-old dairy cattle in Chiang Mai, Thailand. A total of 137 6-month-old calves were randomly selected from 28 small-holder dairy farms in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Individual data of calves including history of bTB of the farms, bTB status of the dams, general farm management, average dairy gain (ADG) of the calves, occurrence of other diseases, and contacts with other animal species, were collected monthly for 6 months. At ≥ 12 months of age, calves were firstly tested for bTB using the SIT test. Firth penalized logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of factors affecting bTB status of calves. The result showed that more SIT reactors were detected among selected calves from farms with a history of bTB (11.5%, 7/61) compared to those farms with no history of bTB (1.3%, 1/76) (p < 0.05). From the logistic regression analysis, we found that calves with high ADG were less likely to become SIT reactors at their first SIT test compared to those with low ADG (p < 0.01). To control bTB in dairy cattle, farm practices to limit contact between adult cattle and young calves, together with proper nutritional management for calves are recommended


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Singhla, T., Boonyayatra, S., & Wells, S. J. (2017). Animal-level factors affecting the results of the first single intradermal test for bovine tuberculosis in dairy calves in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 15(3), 147–155. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Alvarez J., Perez A.M. Bezos, J., Casal, C., Romero, B., Rodriguez-Campos, S., Saez-Llorente, J.L., Diaz, R., Carpintero, J., de Juan, L., Domínguez, L., 2012. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period. BMC Vet. Res. 8, 100.
Andrews, A.H., Blowey, R.W., Boyd, H., Eddy, R.G., 1991. Bovine Medicine Diseases and Husbandry of Cattle. Second edition. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 3-7, 22-54.
Ayele, W.Y., Neill, S.D., Zinsstag, J., Weiss, M.G., Pavlik, I., 2004. Bovine tuberculosis: An old disease but a new threat to Africa. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 8, 924-937.
Bessell, P.R., Ortan, R., White, P.C.L., Hutchings, M.R., Kao, R.R., 2012. Risk factors for bovine Tuberculosis at the national level in Great Britain. BMC Vet. Res. 8, 1-9.
Costello, E., Doherty, M.L., Monaghan, M.L., Quigley, F.C., O'Reilly, P.F., 1998. A study of cattle-to-cattle transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Vet. J. 155(3), 245-250.
Cleaveland, S., Shaw, D.J., Mfinanga, S.G., Shirima, G., Kazwala, R.R., Eblate, E., Sharp, M., 2007. Mycobacterium bovis in rural Tanzania: risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. Tuberculosis. 87, 30-43.
Clegg, T.A., Duignan, A., Whelan, C., Gormley, E., Good, M., Clarke, J., Toft, N., More, S.J., 2011. Using latent class analysis to estimate the test characteristics of the γ-interferon test, the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test and a multiplex immunoassay under Irish conditions. Vet. Microbiol. 151, 68–76.
Cook, A.J.C., Tuchili, L.M., Buve, A., Foster, S.D., GodfreyFaussett, P., Pandey, G.S., McAdam, K.P.W.J., 1996. Human and bovine tuberculosis in the Monze district of Zambia a cross-sectional study. Br. Vet. J. 152, 37-46.
Daborn C.J, Grange J.M., 1993. HIV/AIDS and its implications for the control of animal tuberculosis. Br. Vet. J. 149, 405-417.
Daumas, R.P., Passos, S.R., Oliveira, R.V., Nogueira, R.M., Georg, I., Marzochi, K.B., Brasil, P., 2013. Clinical and laboratory features that discriminate dengue from other febrile illnesses: a diagnostic accuracy study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. BMC Infect. Dis. 13(1), 77.
de la Rua-Domenech, R., Goodchild, A.T., Vordermeier, H.M., Hewinson, R.G., Christiansen, K.H., Clifton-Hadley, R.S., 2006. Ante mortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle: a review of the tuberculin tests, γ-interferon assay and other ancillary diagnostic techniques. Res. Vet. Sci..81, 190–210.
Dejene, S.W., Heitkönig, I.M.A., Prins, H.H.T., Lemma, F. A., Mekonnen, D.A., Alemu, Z.E., Kelkay T.Z., de Boer, W.F., 2016. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in Cattle in Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 11(7), e0159083.
Elias, K., Hussein, D., Asseged, B., Wondwossen, T., Gebeyehu, M., 2008. Status of bovine tuberculosis in Addis Ababa dairy farms, Rev. Sci. Tech. 27, 915-923. Evangelista, T.B.R., De Anda, J.H., 1995. Tuberculosis in dairy calves: risk of Mycobacterium spp. exposure associated with management of colostrum and milk. Prev. Vet. Med. 27, 23-27.
Firth, D., 1993. Bias reduction of maximum likelihood estimates. Biometrika. 80(1), 27-38.
Griffin, J.M., Martin, S.W., Thorburn, M.A., Eves, J.A., Hammond, R.F., 1996. A case-control study on the association of selected risk factors with the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Ireland. Prev. Vet. Med. 27, 217-229.
Griffin, J.M., Hahesy, T., Lynch, K., Salman, M.D., McCarthy, J., Hurley, T., 1993. The association of cattle husbandry characteristics, environmental Singhla et al., Chiang Mai Veterinary Journal 2017; 15(3): 147-155 factors and farmer characteristics with the occurrence of chronic bovine tuberculosis in dairy herds in the Republic of Ireland. Prev. Vet. Med. 17, 145-160.

Heinze, G., Ploner, M., Dunker, D., Southworth, H., 2016. Package ‘logistf’: Firth’s Bias- Reduced Logistic Regression. [online]. Retrieve From https://cran.rproject. org/web/packages/logistf/logistf.pdf.
Humblet, M.F., Boschiroli, M.L., Saegerman, C., 2009. Classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle: a stratified approach. BMC Vet. Res. 40, 50. Kao, R.R., Gravenor, M.B., Charleston, B., Hope, J.C., Martin, M., Howard, C.J., 2006. Mycobacterium bovis shedding patterns from experimentally infected calves and the effect of concurrent infection with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. J R Soc Interface. 4, 545-551.

Kazwala, R.R., Kambarage, D.M., Daborn, C.J., Nyange, J., Jiwa, S.F.H., Sharp, J.M., 2001. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Vet. Res. Commun. 25, 609-614.
Ministry of Agricultural and Cooperatives, 2004. Diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. the Royal Gazette, Bangkok, 1-3. Neill, S.D., Hanna, J., O’Brien, J.J., McCracken, R.M., 1988. Excretion of Mycobacterium bovis by experimentally infected cattle. Vet. Rec. 123, 340-343.
Nuamjit, M., Rodtian, P., 2012. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in upper northern Thailand from December 2010 to May 2011. Northern Animal Health News, 19-25.
Olea-Popelka, F.J., White, P.W., Collins, J.D., O’Keeffe, J., Kelton, D.F., Martin, S.W., 2004. Breakdown severity during a bovine tuberculosis episode as a predictor of future herd breakdowns in Ireland. Prev. Vet. Med. 63, 163–172.
Ozyigit, M.O., Senturk, S., Akkoc, A., 2007. Suspected congenital generalised tuberculosis in a newborn calf. Vet. Rec. 160, 307–308.
Phillips, C.J.C., Foster, C.R.W., Morris, P.A., Teverson, R., 2003. The transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. Res. Vet. Sci. 74, 1-15.
R Core Team, 2016. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. ISBN: 390005107-0. [online]. Retrieve From
Reilly, L.A., Courtenay, O., 2007. Husbandry practices, badger sett density and habitat composition as risk factors for transient and persistent bovine tuberculosis on UK cattle farms. Prev. Vet. Med. 80, 129-142.
Sheridan, M., 2011. Progress in tuberculosis eradication in Ireland. Vet. Microbiol. 151, 160-169. Thoen C.O, Steele J.H., Gilsdorf, M.J., 1995. Mycobacterium bovis infection in animals and
humans. In: Ritacco, V., Sequeira, M.D., de Kantor, I.N., (Eds.), Human Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis in Latin America and the Caribbean, Iowa State University Press, Ames, 13-17.
Thoen, C.O., LoBue, P., de Kantor, I.N., 2006. The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis. Vet. Microbiol. 112, 339-345.
Waters, W.R., Palmer, M.V., Thacker, T.C., Bannantine, J.P., Vordermeier, H.M., Hewinson, R.G., Greenwald, R., Esfandiari, J., McNair, J., Pollock, J.M., Andersen, P., Lyashchenko, K.P., 2006. Early Antibody Responses to Experimental Mycobacterium bovis Infection of Cattle. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 13, 648-654.
Zanini, M.S., Moreira, E., Lopes, M.T., Mota, P., Salas, C.E., 1998. Detection of Mycobacterium bovis in milk by polymerase chain reaction, J. Vet. Med. B Infect. Dis. Vet. Public Health. 45, 473-479.