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The avian blood parasite is one of the most important diseases that causes of economic loss and impact of the poultry production. The objective of this study was aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of blood parasites of backyard chickens in Chiang Mai. This experiment was collected 856 blood samples from backyard chickens in 15 district areas of Chiang Mai. Then, the thin blood smear slides were prepared with Giemsa stain and were analyzed under light microscope. Moreover, the farmers who have raised the backyard chicken were interviewed using a questionnaire. The results showed the prevalence of blood parasites infection in backyard chickens was 73.95% (633/856) and chickens show no symptoms. The incidence of the most common areas in Maetang and Omkoi district. The results showed that chickens were infected with three kinds of blood parasites which comprised of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi (72.66%), Leucocytozoon caulleryi (0.47%) and Microfilaria (4.56%). It is possible that co-infections were found in backyard chicken (4.67%). In addition, the studies showed that the blood parasite infection in backyard chickens significantly related to the seasons (P < 0.05). The analysis of data on the prevalence of blood parasites infection of backyard chickens in Chiang Mai, Thailand, showed an overall prevalence of summer season infection was found to be 78.57% whereas only 68.52% in rainy season had the blood parasitic infection. Conclusions that blood parasites infection in backyard chickens in Chiang Mai, Thailand were highly infections. Therefore, farmers and related agencies should plan, control, and monitor outbreaks at the appropriate time. However, educating and advising services farmers on production system and management will be way to reduce the incidence of disease in backyard chickens in the future
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