Factors associated with irrational antimicrobial use on pig and layer farms in Chiang Mai–Lamphun and Chon Buri provinces, Thailand

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Aniroot Nuangmek
Suvichai Rojanasthien
Panuwat Yamsakul
Pakpoom Tadee
Visanu Thamlikitkul
Nattasit Tansakul
Manat Suwan
Suwit Chotinun
Prapas Patchanee


This research study was conducted to identify the factors associated with irrational antimicrobial use taking place in pig and layer farms in Chiang Mai–Lamphun and Chon Buri Provinces. The approach included twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) occurring among relevant stakeholders. Additionally, a cross-sectional survey of 125 pig and 126 layer farm owners/managers using a validated self-administered questionnaire was performed. Multiple logistics regression was used to investigate associations between factors and good-faire practices. Spearman rank correlation was also applied to analyze the direction and degree of the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practices. It was revealed that the significantly associated factors included farm patterns with prior contracts of farming and these had fair to good practices by as much as 42.95 times (95%CI: 12.87–143.31, p=0.00001). The adjusted OR was 19.12 (95%CI: 5.55–65.82, p=0.00001) interpreting for the purposes of improved practices in Chon Buri Province. Among the factors that were associated with irrational antimicrobial usage on farms, there were a large number of licensed retail pharmacies, drug stores and other outlets involved in the distribution of antimicrobials throughout the country. Consequently, many antimicrobials can be easily accessed and obtained as over-the-counter substances. It is also common for antimicrobials to be over-prescribed and this is motivated and facilitated by financial incentives, insufficient and poor veterinary services, inadequate monitoring, a poor system of tracking and inspecting drugs along the supply chain, inadequate or weak enforcement regulations pertaining to veterinary pharmaceutical medicines and a weak policy of pharmaco-vigilance, overall.


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Nuangmek, A., Rojanasthien, S., Yamsakul, P., Tadee, P., Thamlikitkul, V. ., Tansakul, N., Suwan, M., Chotinun, S., & Patchanee, P. (2020). Factors associated with irrational antimicrobial use on pig and layer farms in Chiang Mai–Lamphun and Chon Buri provinces, Thailand. Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 18(3), 217–243. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/vis/article/view/242669
Research Articles
Author Biography

Prapas Patchanee, Integrative Research Center for Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50100, Thailand



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