Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from backyard pigs in Chiang Mai, Thailand

Main Article Content

Chatchawan Anuchatkitcharoen
Sureerat Numee
Jeff Bender
Nattakarn Awaiwanont
Montira Intanon

Abstract

Salmonella is a major zoonotic pathogen causing public health problems worldwide. There is limited information about the prevalence of Salmonella in backyard pigs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in backyard pigs. A total of 93 fecal samples were randomly collected from backyard pigs in Chiang Mai, Thailand during November 2016 – March 2017 for Salmonella isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The prevalence of Salmonella in backyard pigs was 21.51%. Nine Salmonella serovars were observed. Salmonella I 4,5,12:i:- (31.03%) was the most prevalent serovar followed by, Salmonella Weltevreden (17.24%), Salmonella Rissen (13.8%), Salmonella Bovismorbificans (10.34%) and Salmonella Stanley (10.34%). The Salmonella isolates were most resistant to streptomycin followed by tetracycline, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. However, none of isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, nalidixic, and imipenem. Sixteen different patterns of multi-resistant isolates were observed. The most frequently multi-resistance pattern was AMP-TET-SXT-S. In summary, backyard pigs could play a role as reservoirs harboring Salmonella which can be transmitted to human and other backyard animals. Their wide range of resistance to different classes of antimicrobial agents should be concerned as it could transmit and pose a public health risk to human.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Anuchatkitcharoen, C. ., Numee, S. ., Bender, J. ., Awaiwanont, N. ., & Intanon, M. (2020). Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from backyard pigs in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 18(3), 193–204. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/vis/article/view/243593
Section
Research Articles

References

Alegria Moran R., Adres, L., Urcelay S., Hamilton West C., 2017a. Using spatial tools for high impact zoonotic agents’ surveillance design in backyard production systems from central Chile. Veterinaria México OA. 4(1).10-18.
Alegria, R., Rivera, D., Toledo, V., Moreno Switt, A., Hamilton-West, C., 2017b. First detection and characterization of Salmonella spp. in poultry and swine raised in backyard production systems in central Chile. Epidemiol Infect. 145, 1-11.
Aarestrup, F. M., Lertworapreecha, M., Evans, M. C., Bangtrakulnonth, A., Chalermchaikit, T., Hendriksen, R. S., Wegener, H. C. 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility and occurrence of resistance genes among Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden from different countries. J. Antimicrob. chemother. 52(4), 715–718.
Bangtrakulnonth, A., Pornreongwong, S., Pulsrikarn, C., Sawanpanyalert, P., Hendriksen, R., Wong, D., Aarestrup, F., 2004. Salmonella Serovars from Humans and Other Sources in Thailand, 1993–2002. Emerg Infect Dis. 10, 131-136.
Chalermchaikit, T., 2001. Monitoring of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella isolated from swine. Unpublished data.
Chiu, C.H., Wu, T.L., Su, L.H., Chu, C., Chia, J.H., Kuo, A.J., Chien, M.S., Lin, T.Y., 2002. The emergence in Taiwan of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype choleraesuis. N. Engl. J. Med. 346, 413-419.
CLSI. 2012. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard—Eleventh Edition. CLSI document M02-A11. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
CLSI. 2013. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Third Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S23. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
Crump, J.A., Mintz, E.D., 2010. Global trends in typhoid and paratyphoid Fever. Clin. Infect. Dis. 50, 241-246.
Department of Livestock Development, 2014. Annual report on statistics of livestock population in Thailand. (in Thai)
Fierer, J., Guiney, D.G., 2001. Diverse virulence traits underlying different clinical outcomes of Salmonella infection. J. Clin. Invest. 107, 775-780.
Galanis, E., Lo Fo Wong, D.M., Patrick, M.E., Binsztein, N., Cieslik, A., Chalermchikit, T., Aidara-Kane, A., Ellis, A., Angulo, F.J., Wegener, H.C., World Health Organization Global, S.-S., 2006. Web-based surveillance and global Salmonella distribution, 2000-2002. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12, 381-388.
Guibourdenche, M., Roggentin, P., Mikoleit, M., Fields, P.I., Bockemühl, J., Grimont, P.A., Weill, F.X., 2010. Supplement 2003-2007 (No. 47) to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme. Res. Microbiol. 161, 26-29.
Hale, C.R., Scallan, E., Cronquist, A.B., Dunn, J., Smith, K., Robinson, T., Lathrop, S., Tobin-D'Angelo, M., Clogher, P., 2012. Estimates of enteric illness attributable to contact with animals and their environments in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 54 Suppl 5, S472-479.
Hanson, R., Kaneene, J.B., Padungtod, P., Hirokawa, K., Zeno, C., 2002. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli, and their resistance to antimicrobial agents, in farming communities in northern Thailand. Southeast Asian. J. Trop. Med. Public Health. 33, Suppl 3, 120-126.
Herikstad, H., Motarjemi, Y., Tauxe, R.V., 2002. Salmonella surveillance: a global survey of public health serotyping. Epidemiol. Infect. 129, 1-8.
ISO 6579:2002/Amd 1:2007, Annex D: Detection of Salmonella spp. in animal faeces and in environmental samples from the primary production stage. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
Lettini, A., Than, T., Marafin, E., Longo, A., Antonello, K., Zavagnin, P., Barco, L., Mancin, M., Cibin, V., Morini, M., Dang, M., Nguyen Thi, T.T., Pham, H., Le, L., Nguyen Duc, T., Ricci, A., 2016. Distribution of Salmonella Serovars and Antimicrobial Susceptibility from Poultry and Swine Farms in Central Vietnam. Zoonoses Public Health. 63.
Love, D.C., Tharavichitkul, P., Arjkumpa, O., Imanishi, M., Hinjoy, S., Nelson, K., Nachman, K.E., 2015. Antimicrobial Use and Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis in Swine from Northern Thailand. Thai. J. Vet. Med. 45, 43-53.
Manning, J., Gole, V., Chousalkar, K., 2015. Screening for Salmonella in backyard chickens. Prev. Vet. Med. 120, 241-245.
National Institute of Health of Thailand. 2017. Annual report. (in Thai)
Phongaran, D., Khang-Air, S., & Angkititrakul, S. 2019. Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates from broilers and pigs in Thailand. Vet. World. 12(8), 1311–1318.
Rimhanen-Finne, R., Niskanen, T., Lienemann, T., Johansson, T., Sjöman, M., Korhonen, T., Guedes, S., Kuronen, H., Virtanen, M.J., Mäkinen, J., Jokinen, J., Siitonen, A., Kuusi, M., 2011. A Nationwide Outbreak of Salmonella Bovismorbificans Associated with Sprouted Alfalfa Seeds in Finland, 2009. Zoonoses Public Health. 58, 589-596.
Stokar-Regenscheit, N., Overesch, G., Giezendanner, R., Roos, S., Gurtner, C. 2017. Salmonella enterica subsp. diarizonae serotype 61:k:1,5,(7) associated with chronic proliferative rhinitis and high nasal colonization rates in a flock of Texel sheep in Switzerland. Prev. Vet. Med. 145, 78–82.
Thai, N. P., Pinthong R., Sirimalaisuwan A. , Lüppo E. 2007. Prevalence of Salmonella on Pig Carcasses at a Slaughterhouse in Hanoi, Vietnam Thai. Proceedings, The 15th Congress of FAVA 27-30 October FAVA - OIE Joint Symposium on Emerging Diseases Bangkok, Thailand
Tran, T. P., Ly, T. L., Nguyen, T. T., Akiba, M., Ogasawara, N., Shinoda, D., Okatani,T.A., Hayashidani, H. 2004. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pigs, chickens and ducks in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 66(8), 1011-1014.
Yang, B., Qu, D., Zhang, X., Shen, J., Cui, S., Shi, Y., Xi, M., Sheng, M., Zhi, S., Meng, J. 2010. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella serovars in retail meats of marketplace in Shaanxi, China. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 141(1), 63-72.