Antibacterial properties of lauric acid in combination with organic acids against major pathogens causing dairy mastitis

Main Article Content

Noppason Pangprasit
Anyaphat Srithanasuwan
Witaya Suriyasathaporn
Wasana Chaisri


The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial properties of lauric acid in combination with acetic acid and lactic acid against major dairy mastitis pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. The antibacterial effect of each acid and the acid mixtures was evaluated by their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) using broth microdilution method. The differences in, MIC and MBC values of lauric acid and acid mixtures for each pathogen were calculated by applying the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Turkey’s multiple-range tests were used for pairwise comparison. Results demonstrated that acetic acid had the highest inhibitory and bactericidal effect against all tested pathogens with the lowest MIC and MBC values of 0.125% and 0.25-1 %w/v, respectively. The mixture of lauric acid with acetic and lactic acid exhibited significant higher inhibitory and bactericidal effects by having the lower MIC and MBC values against all tested pathogens when compared with lauric acid alone (P < 0.05). In conclusion, acetic and lactic acid can enhance antibacterial properties of lauric acid against major mastitis pathogens.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pangprasit, N. ., Srithanasuwan, A. ., Suriyasathaporn, W. ., & Chaisri, W. (2020). Antibacterial properties of lauric acid in combination with organic acids against major pathogens causing dairy mastitis: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 19(1), 37–44. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Alakomi, H.L., Skyttä, E., Saarela, M., Mattila-Sandholm, T., Latva-Kala, K., Helander, I.M., 2000. Lactic acid permeabilizes gram-negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66, 2001-2005.
Baselga, R., Albizu, I., Amorena, B., 1994. Staphylococcus aureus capsule and slime as virulence factors in ruminant mastitis. A review. Vet. Microbiol. 39, 195-204.
Batovska, D.I., Todorova, I.T., Tsvetkova, I.V., Najdenski, H.M., 2009. Antibacterial study of the medium chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides: individual effects and synergistic relationships. Pol. J. Microbiol. 58, 43-47.
Boddie, R.L., Nickerson, S.C., 1992. Evaluation of post-milking teat germicides containing Lauricidin, saturated fatty acids, and lactic acid. J. Dairy Sci. 75, 1725-1730.
Busanello, M., Rossi, R.S., Cassoli, L.D., Pantoja, J.C.F., Machado, P.F., 2017. Estimation of prevalence and incidence of subclinical mastitis in a large population of Brazilian dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 6545-6553.
Cheng, J., Qu, W., Barkema, H.W., Nobrega, D.B., Gao, J., Liu, G., De Buck, J., Kastelic, J.P., Sun, H., Han, B., 2019. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of 5 common bovine mastitis pathogens in large Chinese dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 102, 2416-2426.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2014. M100-S24 Performance standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Fourth Informational Supplement. Wayne, PA, USA.
Desbois, A.P., Smith, V.J., 2010. Antibacterial free fatty acids: activities, mechanisms of action and biotechnological potential. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 85, 1629-1642.
Fischer, C.L., Drake, D.R., Dawson, D.V., Blanchette, D.R., Brogden, K.A., Wertz, P.W., 2012. Antibacterial activity of sphingoid bases and fatty acids against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56, 1157-1161.
Fitzpatrick, S.R., Garvey, M., Jordan, K., Flynn, J., O'Brien, B., Gleeson, D., 2019. Screening commercial teat disinfectants against bacteria isolated from bovine milk using disk diffusion. Vet. World 12, 629-637.
Gleeson, D., Flynn, J., Brien, B.O., 2018. Effect of pre-milking teat disinfection on new mastitis infection rates of dairy cows. Ir. Vet. J. 71, 11.
Halasa, T., Huijps, K., Osteras, O., Hogeveen, H., 2007. Economic effects of bovine mastitis and mastitis management: a review. Vet. Q. 29, 18-31.
Heczko, P.B., Lütticken, R., Hryniewicz, W., Neugebauer, M., Pulverer, G., 1979. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and group A, B, C, and G streptococci to free fatty acids. J. Clin. Microbiol. 9, 333-335.
Hovorková, P., Laloučková, K., Skřivanová, E., 2018. Determination of in vitro antibacterial activity of plant oils containing medium-chain fatty acids against Gram-positive pathogenic and gut commensal bacteria. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 63, 119-125.
Kim, S.A., Rhee, M.S., 2013. Marked synergistic bactericidal effects and mode of action of medium-chain fatty acids in combination with organic acids against Escherichia coli O157:H7. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79, 6552-6560.
Kodicek, E., 1945. The effect of unsaturated fatty acids on Lactobacillus helveticus and other Gram-positive micro-organisms. Biochem J. 39, 78-85.
Kovanda, L., Zhang, W., Wei, X., Luo, J., Wu, X., Atwill, E.R., Vaessen, S., Li, X., Liu, Y., 2019. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Organic Acids and Their Derivatives on Several Species of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria. Molecules. 24, 3770.
Mani-López, E., García, H.S., López-Malo, A., 2012. Organic acids as antimicrobials to control Salmonella in meat and poultry products. Food Res. 45, 713-721.
Nair, M.K.M., Joy, J., Vasudevan, P., Hinckley, L., Hoagland, T.A., Venkitanarayanan, K.S., 2005. Antibacterial Effect of Caprylic Acid and Monocaprylin on Major Bacterial Mastitis Pathogens. J. Dairy Sci. 88, 3488-3495.
Nobmann, P., Bourke, P., Dunne, J., Henehan, G., 2010. In vitro antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA. J. Appl. Microbiol. 108, 2152-2161.
Petzer, I.-M., Karzis, J., Donkin, E.F., Webb, E.C., Etter, E.M.C., 2017. Validity of somatic cell count as indicator of pathogen-specific intramammary infections. J. S. Afr. Vet Assoc. 88, e1-e10.
Piepers, S., Schukken, Y.H., Passchyn, P., De Vliegher, S., 2013. The effect of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in early lactating heifers on milk yield throughout first lactation revisited. J. Dairy Sci. 96, 5095-5105.
Piotr B. Heczko, R.l., Waleria Hryniewicz, Maria Neugebauer, Gsrhard Pulerer, 1979. Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Group A, B, C, and G Streptococci to Free Fatty Acids. J. Cli. Microbiol. 9, 333-335.
Rysanek, D., Zouharova, M., Babak, V., 2009. Monitoring major mastitis pathogens at the population level based on examination of bulk tank milk samples. J. Dairy Res. 76, 117-123.
Tangwatcharin, P., Khopaibool, P., 2012. Inhibitory effects of the combined application of lauric acid and monolaurin with lactic acid against Staphylococcus aureus in pork. Sci. Asia. 38, 54-63.
Van Ba, H., Seo, H.W., Pil-Nam, S., Kim, Y.S., Park, B.Y., Moon, S.S., Kang, S.J., Choi, Y.M., Kim, J.H., 2018. The effects of pre-and post-slaughter spray application with organic acids on microbial population reductions on beef carcasses. Meat Sci. 137, 16-23.