Efficiency of Fresh and Fermented Banana Stem in Low Protein Diet on Nutrient Digestibility, Productive Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Crossbred Pig ((Thai native x Meishan) x Duroc) https://doi.org/10.12982/VIS.2021.005

Main Article Content

Chaiwat Arjin
Chanmany Souphannavong
Apinya Sartsook
Mintra Seel-audom
Supamit Mekchay
Korawan Sringarm


Banana stem is a common feed component for raising pigs in mountainous Southeast Asia. However, its nutritive value and digestibility are low.

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of unfermented and fermented banana stems on crossbred pigs concerning nutrient digestibility, productive performance, and intestinal morphology. Initially, an in vitro ileal digestibility test was performed for the following feedstuffs: fresh banana stem (BS), fermented banana stem (FBS), concentrate (C), fresh banana stem + concentrate (BSC), and fermented banana stem + concentrate (FBSC).

For the 120-day experiment, 16 crossbred pigs were divided into two groups and fed with BSC and FBSC. They were placed in individual cages and subsequently moved to metabolic cages for seven days to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). Finally, all pigs were slaughtered and their small intestines were analyzed for intestinal morphology.

The results show that pure fresh and fermented banana stems had low digestibility. However, their digestibility increased by 50% when mixed with concentrate. Crossbred pigs fed BSC and FBSC did not exhibit significant differences in their performance, but the intestinal morphology of the FBSC group had improved intestinal morphology, especially the villi height.

In conclusion, both fresh and fermented banana stems can be recommended in a low protein diet as feed for crossbred pigs in an improved production system. This is relevant for raising pigs in mountainous areas, as it has the potential to reduce feed cost and maintain production performance.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Arjin, C., Souphannavong, C. ., Sartsook, A. ., Seel-audom, M., Mekchay, S. ., & Sringarm, K. (2020). Efficiency of Fresh and Fermented Banana Stem in Low Protein Diet on Nutrient Digestibility, Productive Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Crossbred Pig ((Thai native x Meishan) x Duroc): https://doi.org/10.12982/VIS.2021.005. Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 19(1), 51–64. Retrieved from https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/vis/article/view/245967
Research Articles


Agyekum, A.K., Nyachoti, C.M., 2017. Nutritional and Metabolic Consequences of Feeding High-Fiber Diets to Swine: A Review. Engineering 3, 716–725. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENG.2017.03.010
AOAC, 2006. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, Maryland.
Bach Knudsen, K.E., 2001. The nutritional significance of “dietary fibre” analysis. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 90, 3–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(01)00193-6
Barrow, G.I., Feltham, R.K.A. (Eds.), 1993. Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511527104
Bouhnik, Y., Raskine, L., Simoneau, G., Vicaut, E., Neut, C., Flourié, B., Brouns, F., Bornet, F.R., 2004. The capacity of nondigestible carbohydrates to stimulate fecal bifidobacteria in healthy humans: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response relation study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80, 1658–1664. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.6.1658
Charoensook, R., Knorr, C., Brenig, B., Gatphayak, K., 2013. Thai pigs and cattle production, genetic diversity of livestock and strategies for preserving animal genetic resources. Maejo Int. J. Sci. Technol. 7, 113–132.
Deka, R.P., Grace, D., Lapar, M.L., Lindahl, J., 2014. Sharing Lessons of Smallholders’ Pig System in South Asia and Southeast Asia: a Review. Natl. Conf. Oppor. Strateg. Sustain. Pig Prod. Organ. by ICAR-National Res. Cent. Pig, Rani, Guwahati India 1–14.
Duponte, M.W., Cowell, K., Jha, R., 2016. Banana Silage : An Alternative Feed for Swine. Livest. Manag. 8.
Evaluation, S.D., 2014. The Research Cooperation for Sustainable Farming Systems in the Lower Mekong Basin (2008-2012).
Freire, J.P.., Guerreiro, A.J.., Cunha, L.., Aumaitre, A., 2000. Effect of dietary fibre source on total tract digestibility, caecum volatile fatty acids and digestive transit time in the weaned piglet. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 87, 71–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(00)00183-8
Guixin, Q., Verstegen, M.W.A., Bosch, M.W., 1995. Variation of digestive capacity between genetically different pig populations: a review. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. (Berl). 73, 233–242. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.1995.tb00423.x
Jha, R., Fouhse, J.M., Tiwari, U.P., Li, L., Willing, B.P., 2019. Dietary Fiber and Intestinal Health of Monogastric Animals. Front. Vet. Sci. 6, 48. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00048
Kong, C., Park, C.S., Kim, B.G., 2015. Effects of an enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter digestibility of feed ingredients for pigs. Springerplus 4, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-015-1060-1
Le, M.H.A., Galle, S., Yang, Y., Landero, J.L., Beltranena, E., Gänzle, M.G., Zijlstra, R.T., 2016. Effects of feeding fermented wheat with Lactobacillus reuteri on gut morphology, intestinal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 94, 4677–4687. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2016-0693
Li, Y., Zhang, A.R., Luo, H.F., Wei, H., Zhou, Z., Peng, J., Ru, Y.J., 2015. In vitro and in vivo digestibility of corn starch for weaned pigs: Effects of amylose:Amylopectin ratio, extrusion, storage duration, and enzyme supplementation. J. Anim. Sci. 93, 3512–3520. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-8790
Longland, A.C., Carruthers, J., Low, A.G., 1994. The ability of piglets 4 to 8 weeks old to digest and perform on diets containing two contrasting sources of non-starch polysaccharide. Anim. Sci. 58, 405–410. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1017/S0003356100007352
Nakai, S., 2008. Decision-making on the use of diverse combinations of agricultural products and natural plants in pig feed: a case study of native pig smallholder in northern Thailand. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 40, 201–208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-007-9081-6
Ngoc, T.T.B., Len, N.T., Lindberg, J.E., 2013. Impact of fibre intake and fibre source on digestibility, gut development, retention time and growth performance of indigenous and exotic pigs. Animal 7, 736–745. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112002169
Pedersen, C., Stein, H.H., 2010. Effects of liquid and fermented liquid feeding on energy, dry matter, protein and phosphorus digestibility by growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 134, 59–61. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.06.097
Pluske, J.R., Thompson, M.J., Atwood, C.S., Bird, P.H., Williams, I.H., Hartmann, P.E., 1996. Maintenance of villus height and crypt depth, and enhancement of disaccharide digestion and monosaccharide absorption, in piglets fed on cows’ whole milk after weaning. Br. J. Nutr. 76, 409–422. https://doi.org/10.1079/bjn19960046
Rattanaronchart, S., 1994. Present Situation of Thai Native Pigs. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Chiangmai University.
Sokchea, H., Thi, T., Hong, T., Ngoan, L.D., Phung, L.D., Borin, K., 2018. Nutritive Value of Fermented Banana Pseudo Stem ( Musa spp ) and Rice Bran by Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7.
van Winsen, R.L., Urlings, B.A., Lipman, L.J., Snijders, J.M., Keuzenkamp, D., Verheijden, J.H., van Knapen, F., 2001. Effect of fermented feed on the microbial population of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 3071–3076. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.67.7.3071-3076.2001
Williams, B.A., Verstegen, M.W.A., Tamminga, S., 2001. Fermentation in the large intestine of single-stomached animals and its relationship to animal health. Nutr. Res. Rev. 14, 207. https://doi.org/10.1079/NRR200127