Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum prevalence and risk factors on goat farms in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand

Main Article Content

Ruenruetai Udonsom
Jarawee Supanta
Onrampha Tanglakmankhong
Kanamon Ngoenphisutsin
Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Ragab M. Fereig
Charoonluk Jirapattharasate


Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are apicomplexan protozoan parasites that have been associated with reproductive problems in ruminants. Despite the high seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum reported in goats worldwide, little information about the seroprevalence of these parasites in goats in Thailand. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum in 389 goat samples from five districts of Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using recombinant TgGRA7 and NcSAG1 antigens was used for the detection of anti-T.gondii and anti-N.caninum antibodies, respectively. Risk factors for the occurrence of these protozoan parasites on goat farms were also assessed. Specific IgG against T. gondii and N. caninum was detected in 28.5% and 16.7% samples, respectively. Co-infections were observed in 11.8% of samples. The risk factors significantly associated with T. gondii seroprevalence was the presence of cats (odds ratio [OR]= 2.55, 95% confidential interval [CI]=1.67- 3.89). The presence of other domestic animals on farm contributed to the risk of T. gondii and N. caninum infection on goat farms (OR=1.692, 95% CI= 1.08- 2.63). The present study provides data on the seroprevalence and risk of T. gondii and N. caninum infections among goats in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. Integrated and efficient measures are required to prevent and control infections on goat farms.

Article Details

How to Cite
Udonsom, R. ., Supanta, J. ., Tanglakmankhong, O. ., Ngoenphisutsin, K. ., Nishikawa, Y. ., M. Fereig, R. ., & Jirapattharasate, C. (2020). Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum prevalence and risk factors on goat farms in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 19(1), 65–74. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Arunvipas, P., Inpankaew, T. and Jittapalapong, S., 2012. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Neospora caninum infection among dairy cows in the Western Provinces of Nakhon Pathom, Ratchaburi and Kanchanaburi, Thailand. Kasetsart. Journal (Natural Science). 46, 64-70.
Bawm, S., Maung, W.Y., Win, M.Y., Thu, M.J., Chel, H.M., Khaing, T.A.,Wai, S.S., Htun, L.L., Myaing, T.T., Tiwananthagorn, S., Igarashi, M. and Katakura, K., 2016. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar. Scientifica (Cairo): 4794318.
Chahan, B., Gaturaga, I., Huang, X., Liao, M., Fukumoto, S., Hirata, H., Nishikawa, Y., Suzuki, H., Sugimoto, C., Nagasawa, H., Fujisaki, K., Igarashi, I., Mikami, T. and Xuan, X., 2003. Serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum infection in cattle by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant truncated NcSAG1. Vet. Parasitol. 118 (3-4), 177-185.
Department of Livestock Development, Statistics of livestock in Thailand: 2019. 2019. Accessed 1 Jan 2018.
Dubey, J.P., 1998. Advances in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. Int. J. Parasitol. 28(7), 1019-1024.
Dubey, J.P., 2003. Review of Neospora caninum and neosporosis in animals. Korean. J. Parasitol. 41 (1), 1-16.
Dubey, J.P. and Schares, G., 2011. Neosporosis in animals--the last five years. Vet. Parasitol. 180 (1-2), 90-108.
Fereig, R.M., Mahmoud, H.Y.A.H., Mohamed, S.G.A., AbouLaila, M.R., Abdel-Wahab, A., Osman, S.A., Zidan, S.A., El-Khodary, S.A., Mohamed, A.E.A. and Nishikawa, Y., 2016. Seroprevalence and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in farm animals in different regions of Egypt. Vet. Parasitol. Reg. Stud. Reports. 3-4, 1-6.
Humphry, R.W., Cameron, A. and Gun, G.J., 2004. A practical approach to calculate sample size for herd prevalence surveys. Prev. Vet. Med. 65(3-4), 173-188.
Ichikawa-Seki, M., Guswanto, A., Allamanda, P., Mariamah, E.S., Wibowo, P.E. and Nishikawa, Y., 2016. Seroprevalence of antibody to NcSAG1 antigen of Neospora caninum in cattle from Western Java, Indonesia. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 78 (1), 121-123.
Inpankaew, T., Pinyopanuwut, N., Chimnoi, W., Kengradomkit, C., Sununta, C., Zhang, G., Nishikawa, Y., Igarashi, I., Xuan, X. and Jittapalapong, S., 2010. Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy cows in Thailand. Transbound. Emerg. Dis. 57 (1-2), 42-45.
Inpankaew, T., Jittapalapong, S., Mitchell, T.J., Sununta, C., Igarashi, I. and Xuan, X., 2014. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in Northern provinces, Thailand. Acta. Parasitol. 59 (2), 305-309.
Jittapalapong, S., Sangvaranond, A., Pinyopanuwat, N., Chimnoi, W., Khachaeram, W., Koizumi, S. and Maruyama, S., 2005. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Satun Province, Thailand. Vet. Parasitol. 127 (1), 17-22.
Kengradomkij, C., Inpankaew, T., Kamyingkird, K., Wongpanit, K., Wongnakphet, S., Mitchell, T.J., Xuan, X., Igarashi, I., Jittapalapong, S. and Stich, R.W., 2015. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) to Neospora caninum in northeast Thailand. Vet. Parasitol. 207 (1-2), 156-160.
Liu, Z.K., Li, J.Y. and Pan, H., 2015. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in small ruminants in China. Prev. Vet. Med., 118 (4): 488-492. Montoya, J.G. and Liesenfeld, O. (2004) Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 363(9425), 1965-1976.
Nam, N.H., Chanlun, A., Kanistanon, K. and Aiumlamai, S., 2012. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in Swamp Buffaloes and Beef Cattle in the North-east of Thailand. Thai. J. Vet. Med. 42(2), 213-218.
Rahman, M., Azad, M.T., Nahar, L., Rouf, S.M., Ohya, K., Chiou, S.P., Baba, M., Kitoh, K. and Takashima, Y., 2014. Age-specificity of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in sheep, goats and cattle on subsistence farms in Bangladesh. J. Vet. Med. Sci.76 (9), 1257-9.
Robert-Gangneux, F. and Klein, F., 2009. Serologic screening for Neospora caninum, France. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15 (6), 987-989.
Singh, H., Tewari, A.K., Mishra, A.K., Maharana, B., Sudan, V., Raina, O.K. and Rao, J.R., 2015. Detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in domesticated ruminants by recombinant truncated SAG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 47(1), 171-178.
Tenter, A.M., Heckeroth, A.R. and Weiss, L.M., 2000. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. Int. J. Parasitol. 30(12-13), 1217-1258.
Terkawi, M.A., Kameyama, K., Rasul, N.H., Xuan, X. and Nishikawa, Y., 2013. Development of an immunochromatographic assay based on dense granule protein 7 for serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Clin. Vaccine. Immunol. 20 (4), 596-601.
Topazio, J.P., Weber, A., Camillo, G., Vogel, F.F., Machado, G., Ribeiro, A., Moura, A.B., Lopes, L.S., Tonin, A.A., Soldá, N.M., Bräunig, P. and da Silva, A.S., 2014. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Neospora caninum in goats in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Braz. J. Vet. Parasitol. 23(3), 360-366.
Udonsom, R., Sukthana, Y., Nishikawa, Y., Fereig, R.M. and Jirapattharasate, C., 2018. Current situation of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among beef cattle in Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Patom provinces, Thailand. Thai. J. Vet. Med. 48 (3), 403-409.
Wiengcharoen, J., Nakthong, C., Mitchaothai, J., Udonsom, R. and Sukthana, Y., 2012. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public. Health. 43 (5), 1087-1093.