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This research aimed to assess the occurrence of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance in dogs presenting with canine periapical tooth abscesses. Sample swabs were performed on 45 dogs who had undergone dental surgery between January 2019 and August 2020 at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Chiang Mai University. Samples were analyzed within 24 hours at Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Chiang Mai University to identify any bacterial species and to investigate their potential antimicrobial susceptibility according to CLSI guidelines. A high proportion of gram-negative and facultative species were identified. Out of the 17 species obtained, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (34.6 %) was determined to be the predominant species followed by Escherichia coli (15.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.5%), respectively. P. aeruginosa was highly resistant (100.0%) to ampicillin and clindamycin, while E. coli and K. pneumoniae were found to be highly resistant (100.0%) to clindamycin in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility. However, E. coli was more resistant to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and norfloxacin than K. pneumoniae. When focusing on the resistance rates of all species, clindamycin exhibited the highest degree of resistance, followed by ampicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Amoxicillin-clavulanate is an empirical antibiotic in our area that has exhibited a resistance rate of 48.7%. The outcomes of our study have suggested that fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside could be used to treat canine periapical tooth abscesses. However, the renal effect of these drugs must be considered. Importantly, antibiotic selection must depend upon the results of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests in order to reduce any potential antimicrobial resistance issues.
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