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Japanese encephalitis is a serious vector borne viral zoonotic disease, particularly in Asia and Northern Australia. In Nepal, JE cases were reported in 63 out of 75 districts up until the year 2005. The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) toward JE and associated factors. A structured questionnaire was used to gather information on the KAP of people in endemic areas. Accordingly, 397 respondents demonstrated a desirable attitude, while half of the population exhibited desirable knowledge and practices. Age was found to be a significant factor for knowledge, wherein the senior population had better awareness of the vectors of JE. Moreover, education and occupation were found to be significant factors for KAP scores with an increase in level of education leading to an increase in desirable characteristics. This study determined that the characteristics of the surrounding environment were prominent factors. A significant number of people were not aware of the JE vaccine even though the government has made it available to most of the population of Nepal. Thus, more effective awareness programs should be implemented to increase the KAP of the population with regard to JE.
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