Main Article Content
During COVID-19 outbreak, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) has been widely used for hand cleaning and removing pathogens including human pathogens and zoonosis pathogens. High concentration of alcohol induces dehydrated skin in the users. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate moisturizing property and antimicrobial activity of alcohol-based hand sanitizer formulations using coconut oil as a moisturizing agent against pathogens including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The properties including antimicrobial activity, stability of the ABHS, and satisfaction levels of the coconut oil with two existing formulations by WHO and the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand (MOPH) were determined. The formulation containing the coconut oil demonstrated antibacterial activity against both E. coli and S. aureus with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8.75% V/V as same as MOPH. However, the WHO-modified formulation has the highest antimicrobial activity with the MIC value of 2.19% V/V. The stability result of 3 ABHSs showed that the preserved had the same efficacy compared to that of the fresh formulations. Hand washing with coconut formulation produced an average score of 7.19±1.71 on color, 7.06±1.56 on appearance, 5.82±2.10 on odor, 6.77±1.68 on moisture, 6.88±1.42 on overall acceptance out of 9. However, the sensory analysis of these three formulations results showed no significant difference in all parameters. The data suggest that moisturizing agents tested in our study do not affect the efficacy of ethanol. The coconut oil formulation is another good option for people searching for an effective hand sanitizer for germs protection and moisturizing.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Publishing an article with open access in Veterinary Integrative Sciences leaves the copyright with the author. The article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC-BY 4.0), which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited.
Abbas, A.A., Assikong, E.B., Akeh, M., Upla, P., Tuluma, T., 2017. Antimicrobial activity of coconut oil and its derivative (lauric acid) on some selected clinical isolates. Int. J. Med. Sci. Clin. Invent. 4(8), 3173-3177.
Arora, R., Chawla, R., Marwah, R., Arora, P., Sharma, R.K., Kaushik, V., Goel R., Kaur A., Silambarasan M., Tripathi R. P., and Bhardwaj J. R., 2011. Potential of complementary and alternative medicine in preventive management of novel H1N1 flu (Swine flu) Pandemic: Thwarting potential disasters in the bud. Evid. Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2011:586506
Barel, A.O., Paye, M., Maibach, H.I., 2014. Handbook of cosmetic science and technology. CRC press, Boca Raton.
Berardi, A., Perinelli, D.R., Merchant, H.A., Bisharat, L., Basheti, I.A., Bonacucina, G., Cespi, M., Palmieri, G.F., 2020. Hand sanitisers amid covid-19: A critical review of alcohol-based products on the market and formulation approaches to respond to increasing demand. Int. J. Pharm. 584:119431.
Centers for disease control and prevention., 2020. How to select and use hand sanitizer. Centers for disease control and prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Chamsai, P., Tapnarong, G., Junlapak, D., Matan, N., 2010. Development of a hand sanitizing spray using peppermint oil. Asian J. Food Agro-Ind. 3(1), 178-183.
Chojnacki, M., Dobrotka, C., Osborn, R., Johnson, W., Young, M., Meyer, B., Laskey, E., Wozniak, R.A.F., Dewhurst, S., Dunman, P.M., 2021. Evaluating the antimicrobial properties of commercial hand sanitizers. mSphere. 6(2), e00062-21.
Clifford, D.P., Repine, J.E., 1982. Hydrogen peroxide mediated killing of bacteria. Mol. Cell.Biochem. 49(3), 143-149.
Dia, V.P., Garcia, V.V., Mabesa, R.C., Tecson-Mendoza, E.M., 2005. Comparative physicochemical characteristics of virgin coconut oil produced by different methods.Philipp. Agric. Sci. 88(1), 462-475.
Flick, E.W., 1989. Handbook of Adhesive Raw Materials. NOYES, Norwich. Garrido, J.I., Lozano, J.E., Genovese, D.B., 2015. Effect of formulation variables on rheology, texture, colour, and acceptability of apple jelly: Modelling and optimization.LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 62(1, Part 1), 325-332.
German, J.B., Dillard, C.J., 2004. Saturated fats: What dietary intake? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80(3),550-559.
Haft, R.J., Keating, D.H., Schwaegler, T., Schwalbach, M.S., Vinokur, J., Tremaine, M., Peters,J.M., Kotlajich, M.V., Pohlmann, E.L., Ong, I.M., Grass, J.A., Kiley, P.J., Landick, R.,2014. Correcting direct effects of ethanol on translation and transcription machinery confers ethanol tolerance in bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(25),E2576-2585.
Jing, J.L.J., Pei Yi, T., Bose, R.J.C., McCarthy, J.R., Tharmalingam, N., Madheswaran, T.,2020. Hand sanitizers: A review on formulation aspects, adverse effects, and regulations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 17(9), 3326.
Kampf, G., 2018. Efficacy of ethanol against viruses in hand disinfection. J. Hosp. Infect.98(4), 331-338.
Kampf, G., Kramer, A., 2004. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17(4), 863-893.
Krishna, A.G., Gaurav, R., Singh, B.A., Kumar, P.P., Preeti, C., 2010. Coconut oil: chemistry, production and its applications-a review. Indian Coconut J. 53(3), 15-27.
Lubrizol corporation., 2021. Carbopol polymer products. Lubrizol corporation, Wickliffe.
Mare, A.D., Ciurea, C.N., Man, A., Tudor, B., Moldovan, V., Decean, L., Toma, F., 2021. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli—a summary of the literature. Gastroenterol. Insights. 12(1), 28-40.
Marina, A., Che Man, Y., Nazimah, S., Amin, I., 2009. Chemical properties of virgin coconut oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 86(4), 301-307.
McDonnell, G., Russell, A.D., 1999. Antiseptics and disinfectants: Activity, action, and resistance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12(1), 147-179.
Morton, H.E., 1950. The relationship of concentration and germicidal efficiency of ethyl alcohol. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 53(1), 191-196.
Mu, H., Høy, C.E., 2004. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols. Prog. Lipid. Res. 43(2), 105-133.
Ogbolu, D.O., Oni, A.A., Daini, O.A., Oloko, A.P., 2007. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria. J. Med. Food. 10(2), 384-387.
Qiu, Y., Chen, Y., Zhang, G.G.Z., Yu, L., Mantri, R.V., 2017. Developing solid oral dosage forms. Academic Press, Boston.
Stein, R.A., 2009. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-the new zoonosis. Int. J. Infect.Dis. 13(3), 299-301.
Suchomel, M., Weinlich, M., Kundi, M., 2017. Influence of glycerol and an alternative humectant on the immediate and 3-hours bactericidal efficacies of two isopropanol-based antiseptics in laboratory experiments in vivo according to EN 12791. Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control. 6(1), 72.
van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D.H., Holbrook, M.G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B.N., Tamin, A., Harcourt, J.L., Thornburg, N.J., Gerber, S.I., Lloyd-Smith, J.O., de Wit, E., Munster, V.J., 2020. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N. Engl. J. Med. 382(16), 1564-1567.
Varma, S.R., Sivaprakasam, T.O., Arumugam, I., Dilip, N., Raghuraman, M., Pavan, K.B.,Rafiq, M., Paramesh, R., 2019. In vitro anti-inflammatory and skin protective properties of virgin coconut oil. J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 9(1), 5-14.
World Health Organization., 2009. WHO Guidelines on hand hygiene in health care: First global patient safety challenge clean care is safer care. World Health Organization, Geneva.
World Health Organization., 2010. Guide to local production: WHO-recommended handrub formulations. World Health Organization, Geneva.