One Health perspectives on sustainable rabies prevention in Thailand: a qualitative interview study

Main Article Content

Kritkarnda Kiratitana-olan
Warangkhana Chaisowwong
Kriangkrai Thongkorn
Khwanchai Kreausukon


Rabies is a challenging human and animal health concern that requires a multisectoral and interdisciplinary strategy for prevention and control. The aim of this study was to investigate One Health perspectives on long-term rabies prevention in disease-free subdistricts of Chiang Mai, Thailand. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was carried out in three rabies-free communities with diverse demographics, and the results were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings were gathered from 36 interviews with equal proportions of urban, suburban, and rural populations. Although none of the participants mentioned the term “One Health”, the majority of them comprehended that rather than a one-dimensional approach, a multi-dimensional approach to rabies prevention would be effective. The main theme from the interview analysis was multisectoral collaboration. The role of the local government in collaboration, the involvement of the medical and veterinary branches, and intersectoral action with community engagement were all sub-themes. Community leaders and village health volunteers collaborated with local authorities to connect community members. The use of wired broadcasting as a method of public communication was critical to increasing rabies knowledge and awareness. Human and animal health agencies provided support for rabies vaccine and medical equipment, as well as staff skills and practice training. Community participation in rabies activities contributed to preventing, detecting, and responding to the disease. The One Health concept must be developed and implemented in practice at all levels of all key sectors, particularly among the
general population in rabies-endemic areas throughout the country.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kiratitana-olan, K. ., Chaisowwong, W. ., Thongkorn, K. ., & Kreausukon, K. . (2022). One Health perspectives on sustainable rabies prevention in Thailand: a qualitative interview study: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 20(2), 443–457. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Abbas, S.S., Venkataraman, V., Pathak, G., Kakkar, M., 2011. Rabies control initiative in Tamil Nadu, India: a test case for the ‘One Health’ approach. Int. Health. 3(4), 231-239.

Acharya, K.P., Acharya, N., Phuyal, S., Upadhyaya, M., Lasee, S., 2020. One-health approach:a best possible way to control rabies. One Health. 10, 10100161.

Adomako, B.Y., Baiden, F., Sackey, S., Ameme, D.K., Wurapa, F., Nyarko, K.M., Kenu, E.,Afari, E., 2018. Dog bites and rabies in the eastern region of ghana in 2013-2015: a call for a one-health approach. J. Trop. Med. 2, 6139013.

Ba, M.F., Kane, N.M., Diallo, M.K.K., Bassoum, O., Boh, O.K., Mboup, F.Z.M., Faye, E.H.B.,Bedekelabou, A.P., Dieng, S.D., Diop, F.N., Badiane, M., Ridde, V., Faye, A., 2021.Knowledge, attitudes and practices on rabies among human and animal health professionals in senegal. Pathogens. 10(10), 1282.

Banyard, A.C., Mansfield, K.L., Wu, G., Selden, D., Thorne, L., Birch, C., Koraka, P.,Osterhaus, A., Fooks, A.R., 2019. Re-evaluating the effect of favipiravir treatment on rabies virus infection. Vaccine. 37(33), 4686-4693.

Belay, E.D., Kile, J.C., Hall, A.J., Barton-Behravesh, C., Parsons, M.B., Salyer, S., Walke, H., 2017. Zoonotic disease programs for enhancing global health security. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 23(13), S65–S70.

Brookes, V.J., Kennedy, E., Dhagapan, P., Ward, M.P., 2017. Qualitative research to design sustainable community-based surveillance for rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Front. Vet. Sci. 4, 19.

Castillo-Neyra, R., Brown, J., Borrini, K., Arevalo, C., Levy, M.Z., Buttenheim, A., Hunter, G.C., Becerra, V., Behrman, J., Paz-Soldan, V.A., 2017. Barriers to dog rabies vaccination during an urban rabies outbreak: qualitative findings from Arequipa, Peru. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 11(3), e0005460.

Chanachai, K., Wongphruksasoong, V., Vos, A., Leelahapongsathon, K., Tangwangvivat, R.,Sagarasaeranee, O., Lekcharoen, P., Trinuson, P., Kasemsuwan, S., 2021. Feasibility and effectiveness studies with oral vaccination of free-roaming dogs against rabies in Thailand. Viruses. 13(4), 571.

Degeling, C., Johnson, J., Kerridge, I., Wilson, A., Ward, M., Stewart, C., Gilbert, G., 2015. Implementing a one health approach to emerging infectious disease: reflections on the socio-political, ethical and legal dimensions. BMC Public Health. 15, 1307.

Degeling, C., Brookes, V., Lea, T., Ward, M., 2018. Rabies response, One health and more-than-human considerations in Indigenous communities in Northern Australia. Soc. Sci. Med. 212, 60-67.

Gautam, V., Bhardwaj, P., Saxena, D., Kumar, N., S, D., 2020. Multisectoral approach to achieve canine rabies controlled zone using Intervention Mapping: preliminary results. PLoS ONE. 15(12), e0242937.

Hampson, K., Coudeville, L., Lembo, T., Sambo, M., Kieffer, A., Attlan, M., Barrat, J., Blanton,J.D., Briggs, D.J., Cleaveland, S., Costa, P., Freuling, C.M., Hiby, E., Knopf, L.,Leanes, F., Meslin, F.X., Metlin, A., Miranda, M.E., Müller, T., Nel, L.H., Recuenco,S., Rupprecht, C.E., Schumacher, C., Taylor, L., Vigilato, M.A., Zinsstag, J., Dushoff,J., 2015. Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies. PLoS Negl. Trop.Dis. 9(4), e0003709.

Hampson, K., Abela-Ridder, B., Bharti, O., Knopf, L., L ́echenne, M., Mindekem, R.,Tarantola, A., Zinsstag, J., Trotter, C., 2019. Modelling to inform prophylaxis regimens to prevent human rabies. Vaccine. 37(1), A166-A173.

Hassan, O.A., Affognon, H., Rocklöv, J., Mburu, P., Sang, R., Ahlm, C., Evander, M., 2017. The one health approach to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices that affect community involvement in the control of Rift Valley fever outbreaks. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 11(2), e0005383.

Häsler, B., Hiby, E., Gilbert, W., Obeyesekere, N., Bennani, H., Rushton, J., 2014. A one health framework for the evaluation of rabies control programmes: a case study from Colombo city, Sri Lanka. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 8(10), e3270.

Hemachudha, P., Hemachudha, T., 2021. Rabies: presentation, case management and therapy.J. Neurol. Sci. 424, 117413.

Hinjoy, S., Wongkumma, A., Kongyu, S., Smithsuwan, P., Suangtho, P., Yingyong, T.,Chanvatik, S., Colombe, S., 2016. An assessment of epidemiology capacity in a One Health team at the provincial level in Thailand. Vet. Sci. 3(4), 30.

Isiko, J., Okech, S.G., Nakanwagi, B., Majalija, S., Owiny, D.O., Khaitsa, M., Kaneene, J.B.,Wakoko, F., 2017. Service-learning and community engagement yields benefits in zoonotic disease control: the case of rabies control in Mbuya II Zone in Kampala, Uganda. Pan. Afr. Med. J. 27(4), 10.

Jiaviriyaboonya, P., 2022. Anthropological study of village health volunteers’ (VHVs’) socio-political network in minimizing risk and managing the crisis during COVID-19. Heliyon. 8(1), e08654.

Kelly, T.R., Machalaba, C., Karesh, W.B., Crook, P.Z., Gilardi, K., Nziza, J., Uhart, M.M.,Robles, E.A., Saylors, K., Joly, D.O., Monagin, C., Mangombo, P.M., Kingebeni,P.M., Kazwala, R., Wolking, D., Smith, W., Mazet, J.A.K., 2020. Implementing one health approaches to confront emerging and re-emerging zoonotic disease threats: lessons from predict. One Health Outlook. 2, 1.

Kiratitana-olan, K., Chaisowwong, W., Thongkorn, K., Kreausukon, K., 2021. Keys to good knowledge, attitude and practice on rabies prevention in disease-free communities. Vet. Sci. 19(3), 407-422.

Lehmann, U., Sanders, D., 2007. Community health workers: what do we know about them? the state of the evidence on programmes, activities, costs and impact on health outcomes of using community health workers. Available online: (Accessed on 28, February 2022).

Lushasi, K., Steenson, R., Bernard, J., Changalucha, J.J., Govella, N.J., Haydon, D.T., Hoffu, H., Lankester, F., Magoti, F., Mpolya, E.A., Mtema, Z., Nonga, H., Hampson, K.,2020. One health in practice: Using integrated bite case management to increase detection of rabid animals in Tanzania. Front. Public Health. 8, 13.

Mackenzie, J.S., McKinnon, M., Jeggo, M., 2014. One health: from concept to practice. In: Yamada, A., Kahn, L., Kaplan, B., Monath, T., Woodall, J., Conti, L. (Eds.),Confronting Emerging Zoonoses. Springer, Tokyo, 163-189.

Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2017. Temporary rabies-endemic areas. Available online: (Accessed on 31 December,2017).

Ministry of Public Health, 2013a. MoPH-MoAC Thailand rabies awards 2013. Document No.MoPH 0422.4/493. Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi.

Ministry of Public Health, 2013b. Thailand’s national strategic plan for emerging infectious disease: preparedness, prevention and response 2013-2016. Available online: (Accessed on 28 February, 2022).

Ministry of Public Health, 2014. Sixth national health assembly, agenda 2.7: multi-sectoral collaboration for One Health of humans, animals and environment, Health Assembly 6/ Main Document 7. Available online: (Accessed on 28 February, 2022).

Ministry of Public Health, 2016. Thailand’s national strategic plan for emerging infectious diseases 2017-2021. Available online: // eidnationplan20172022_en_270660.pdf (Accessed on 28 February, 2022).

Ministry of Public Health, 2017. Number of rabies case in human. Available online: (Accessed on 31 December, 2017).

Monje, F., Erume, J., Mwiine, F.N., Kazoora, H., Okech, S.G., 2020. Knowledge, attitude and practices about rabies management among human and animal health professionals in Mbale District, Uganda. One Health Outlook. 2, 24.

Mpolya, E.A., Lembo, T., Lushasi, K., Mancy, R., Mbunda, E.M., Makungu, S., Maziku, M.,Sikana, L., Jaswant, G., Townsend, S., 2017. Toward elimination of dog-mediated human rabies: experiences from implementing a large-scale demonstration project in southern Tanzania. Front. Vet. Sci. 4, 21.

Munyua, P., Bitek, A., Osoro, E., Pieracci, E.G., Muema, J,, Mwatondo, A., Kungu, M.,Nanyingi, M., Gharpure, R., Njenga, K., et al., 2016. Prioritization of zoonotic diseases in Kenya, 2015. PLoS One. 11(8), e0161576.

Nadal, D., Beeching, S., Cleaveland, S., Cronin, K., Hampson, K., Steenson, R., Abela-Ridder, B., 2021. Rabies and the pandemic: lessons for one health. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med.Hyg. 116(3), 197-200.

Palamar, M.B., Correa, M.T., Peterson, N.M., DePerno, C.S., 2017. Public preference for pet-rabies prophylaxis: opportunities and information dissemination. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis., 2(3), 46.

Pieracci, E.G., Hall, A.J., Gharpure, R., Haile, A., Walelign, E., Deressa, A., Bahiru, G., Kibebe, M., Walke, H., Belay, E., 2016. Prioritizing zoonotic diseases in Ethiopia using a one health approach. One Health. Elsevier. 2, 131-135.

Quiambao, B., Varghese, L., Demarteau, N., Sengson, R.F., Javier, J., Mukherjee, P., Manio, L.C., Preiss, S., 2020. Health economic assessment of a rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis program compared with post-exposure prophylaxis alone in high-risk age groups in the Philippines. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 97, 38-46.

Rist, C.L., Arriola, C.S., Rubin, C., 2014. Prioritizing zoonoses: a proposed one health tool for collaborative decision-making. PLoS ONE. 9(10), e109986.

Rock, M., Rault, D., Degeling, C., 2017. Dog-bites, rabies and one health: towards improved coordination in research, policy and practice. Soc. Sci. Med. 187, 126-133.

Sommanustweechai, A., Iamsirithaworn S., Patcharanarumol, W., Kalpravidh, W.,Tangcharoensathien, V., 2016. Adoption of one health in Thailand’s national strategic plan for emerging infectious diseases. J. Public Health Policy. 38, 121-136.

Sreenivasan, N., Li, A., Shiferaw, M., Tran, C.H., Wallace, R., Blanton, J., Knopf, L.,Abela-Ridder, B., Hyde, T., 2019. Overview of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis access, procurement and distribution in selected countries in Asia and Africa, 2017–2018. Vaccine. 37(1), A6-A13.

Steele, S.G., Booy, R., Mor, S.M., 2018. Establishing research priorities to improve the One Health efficacy of Australian general practitioners and veterinarians with regard to zoonoses: a modified Delphi survey. One Health. 6, 7-15.

Taylor, L.H., Wallace, R.M., Balaram, D., Lindenmayer, J.M., Eckery, D.C., Mutonono-Watkiss, B., Parravani, E., Nel, L.H., 2017. The role of dog population management in rabies elimination-a review of current approaches and future opportunities. Front. Vet.Sci. 4, 109.

Tenzin, T., Ahmed, R., Debnath, N.C., Ahmed, G., Yamage, M., 2015. Free-roaming dog population estimation and status of the dog population management and rabies control program in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 9(5), e0003784.

Thanapongtharm, W., Suwanpakdee, S., Chumkaeo, A., Gilbert, M., Wiratsudakul, A., 2021. Current characteristics of animal rabies cases in Thailand and relevant risk factors identified by a spatial modeling approach. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 15(12), e0009980.

Wang, X., Rainey, J.J., Goryoka, G.W., Liang, Z., Wu, S., Wen, L., Duan, R., Qin, S., Huang, H., Kharod, G., Rao, C.Y., Salyer, S.J., Behravesh, C.B., Jing, H., 2021. Using a one health approach to prioritize zoonotic diseases in China, 2019. PLoS ONE. 16(11),e0259706.

Widyastuti, M.D., Bardosh, K.L., Sunandar, Basri, C., Basuno, E., Jatikusumah, A., Arief, R.A.,Putra, A.A., Rukmantara, A., Estoepangestie, A.T., Willyanto, I., Natakesuma, I.K.,Sumantra, I.P., Grace, D., Unger, F., Gilbert, J., 2015. On dogs, people, and a rabiesepidemic: results from a sociocultural study in Bali, Indonesia. Infect. Dis. Poverty. 4, 30.

Woldie, M., Feyissa, G.T., Admasu, B., Hassen, K., Mitchell, K., Mayhew, S., McKee, M.,Balabanova, D., 2018. Community health volunteers could help improve access to and use of essential health services by communities in LMICs: an umbrella review. Health Policy Plan. 33(10), 1128-1143.

World Health Organization, 2007. Role of village health volunteers in avian influenza surveillance in Thailand. Available online: (Accessed on 28 February, 2022).

World Health Organization, 2012. Strategic framework for elimination of human rabies transmitted by dogs in the South-East Asia region. Available online: (Accessed on 28 February, 2022).

World Health Organization, 2013. WHO Expert consultation on rabies, second report. Available online: (Accessed on 28 February,2022).

World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health. 2016. Global elimination of dog-mediated human rabies: the time is now: report of the rabies global conference,10-11 December 2015, Geneva, Switzerland. Available online: (Accessed on 28 February, 2022).

World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Heath (OIE), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2019. Taking a multisectoral, One Health approach: a tripartite guide to addressing zoonotic diseases in countries. Available online: (Accessed on 28 February, 2022).

World Health Organization, 2022. Ending the neglect to attain the sustainable development goals One Health: approach for action against neglected tropical diseases 2021–2030.Available online: (Accessed on 28 February, 2022).

Wu, H., Chen, J., Zou, L., Zheng, L., Zhang, W., Meng, Z., Magalhaes, R.J.S., Wang, Y., Kang,J., Sun, X., 2016. Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China. BMC Infect. Dis. 16, 701.

Yamada, K., Noguchi, K., Komeno, T., Furuta, Y., Nishizono, A., 2016. Efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) in rabies postexposure prophylaxis. J. Infect. Dis. 213(8), 1253-61.

Yasobant, S., Saxena, D., Bruchhausen, W., Memon, F.Z., Falkenberg, T., 2019. Multi-sectoral prioritization of zoonotic diseases: One Health perspective from Ahmedabad, India. PLoS ONE. 14(7), e0220152.

Yoak, A.J., Haile, A., O'Quin, J., Belu, M., Birhane, M., Bekele, M., Murphy, S., Medley, A.,Vincent, E., Stewart, D., Shiferaw, M.L., Tafese, K., Garabed, R., Pieracci, E.G., 2021. Barriers and opportunities for canine rabies vaccination campaigns in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Prev. Vet. Med. 187, 105256.

Zinsstag, J., Waltner-Toews, D., Tanner, M., 2015. Theoretical issues of One Health. In:Zinsstag, J., Schelling, E., Waltner-Toews, D., Whittaker, M., Tanner, M. (Eds.), One Health: the theory and practice of integrated health approaches, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland.