Dietary organic trace mineral supplement affects steroid hormone, antioxidant enzyme concentrations, and reproductive performances in dairy cows

Main Article Content

Vilaivan Khanthusaeng
Thanya Bunma
Chutikun Kanjanaruch
Jiratti Thammasiri
Chainarong Navanukraw


Supplementation of organic trace mineral (OTM) may affect reproductive functions in several aspects and has been studied, but very rare is reported in dairy cows. To determine the effects of dietary OTM supplement during pre- and postpartum with timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol on steroid hormones, antioxidant enzymes, and reproductive performances in dairy cows. Prepartum Holstein cows (n = 60) were randomly assigned to received either a control diet or OTM supplemented for 42 days. Both groups were fed the same total mixed ration, but were supplemented with 5 g/head/d OTM (Bioplex®) in the treatment group. Blood and follicular fluid samples were collected to determine progesterone (P4), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and estradiol (E2) concentrations. Cows fed OTM had better placental expulsion period, milk yield, and reproductive performance parameters (day to first ovulation and estrus, percentage of first estrus and size of preovulatory follicle) than control cows (P < 0.05). Cows fed OTM affected (P < 0.05) the serum concentration of P4 on days 12, 15, 18, 21, and 42 after TAI. Follicular fluid concentrations of E2 in large follicle in OTM cows were greater than control cows (336.3 and 376.9 ng/mL; P < 0.05). Cows supplemented with OTM had
greater serum SOD and GSH-Px activities than control cows (15.5 vs. 10.6 U/mL and 12.1 vs. 9.9 U/mL; P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplements with OTM improved uterine and placental health, steroid hormones concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activities but did not improve conception rate in dairy cows.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khanthusaeng, V. ., Bunma, T. ., Kanjanaruch, C. ., Thammasiri, J. ., & Navanukraw, C. . (2022). Dietary organic trace mineral supplement affects steroid hormone, antioxidant enzyme concentrations, and reproductive performances in dairy cows: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 20(3), 609–624. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Ahola, J.K., Baker, D.S., Burns, P.D., Mortimer, R.G., Enns, R.M., Whittier, J.C., Geary, T.W., Engle, T.E., 2004. Effect of copper, zinc, and manganese supplementation and source on reproduction, mineral status, and performance in grazing beef cattle over a two-year period. J. Anim. Sci. 82, 2375-2383.

AOAC, 1985. Official Method of Analysis. Association of Official Agricultural Chemicals. 10th Ed. Washington: DC.

Battaglia, D.F., Krasa, H.B., Padmanabhan, V., Viguie, C., Karsch, F.J., 2000. Endocrine alterations that underlie endotoxin-induced disruption of the follicular phase in ewes. Biol. Reprod. 62, 45-53.

Basini, G., Tamanini, C., 2000. Selenium stimulates estradiol production in bovine granulosa cells: possible involvement of nitric oxide. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 18, 1–17.

Beagley, J.C., Whitman, K.J., Baptiste, K.E., Scherzer, J., 2010. Physiology and treatment of retained fetal membranes in cattle. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 24, 261-268.

Bicalho, M.L.S., Lima, F.S., Ganda, E.K., Foditsch, C., Meira, Jr.E.B.S., Machado, V.S., Teixeira, A.G., Oikonomou, G., Gilbert , R.O., Bicalho, R.C., 2014. Effect of trace mineral supplementation on selected minerals, energy metabolites, oxidative stress, and immune parameters and its association with uterine diseases in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 97, 4281-4295.

Campbell, M.H., Miller, J.K., 1998. Effect of supplemental dietary vitamin E and Zinc on reproductive performance of dairy cows and heifers fed excess iron. J, Dairy Sci. 81, 2693-2699.

Campbell, M.H., Miller, J.K., Schrick, F.N., 1999. Effect of additional cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc on reproduction and milk yield of lactating dairy cows receiving bovine somatotropin. J. Dairy Sci. 82, 1019-1025.

Cerny, K.L., Anderson, L., Burris, W.R., Rhoads, M., Matthews, J.C., Bridges, P.J., 2016. From of supplemental selenium fed to cycling cows affects systemic concentrations of progesterone but not those of estradiol. Theriogenology. 85, 800-806.

Cheong, S.H., Sá Filho, O.G., Absalon-Medina, V.A., Schneider, A., Butler, W.R., Gilbert, R.O., 2017. Uterine and systemic inflammation influences ovarian follicular function in postpartum dairy cows. PLoS. ONE. 12, e0177356.

Colazo, M., Ambrose, D., 2012. Ovulatory follicle in lactating dairy cows: size matters?. Reprod. Dom. Anim. 47, p 490.

Cope, C.M., Mackenzie, A.M., Wilde, D., Sinclair, L.A., 2009. Effects of level and form of dietary zinc on dairy cow performance and health. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 2128-2135.

Cortinhas, C.S., Botaro, B.G., Sucupira, M.C.A., Renno, F.P., Santos, M.V., 2010. Antioxidant enzymes and somatic cell count in dairy cows fed with organic source of zinc, copper, and selenium. Livest. Sci. 127, 84-87.

Drillich, M., Pfützner, A., Sabin, H.J., Sabin, M., Heuwieser, W., 2003. Comparison of two protocols for the treatment of retained fetal membranes in dairy cattle. Theriogenology. 59, 951-960.

Ferguson, J.D., Galligan, D.T., Thomsen, N., 1994. Principal descriptors of body condition score in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77, 2695-2703.

Formigoni, A., Fustini, M., Archetti, L., Emanuele, S., Sniffen, C., Biagi, G., 2011. Effects of an organic source of copper, manganese and zinc on dairy cattle productive performance, health status and fertility. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 164, 191-198.

Griffiths, L.M., Loeffler, S.H., Socha, M.T., 2007. Effects of supplementing complexed zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt on lactation and reproductive performance of intensively grazed lactating dairy cattle on the South Island of New Zealand. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 137, 69-83.

Gwazdauskas, F.C., Bibb, T.L., McGilliard, M.L., Lineweaver, J.A., 1978. Effect of prepartum selenium-vitamin E injection on time for placenta to pass and on productive functions. J. Dairy Sci. 62, 978-981.

Halliwell, B., 1999. Antioxidant defense mechanisms: From the beginning to the end (of the beginning). Free Radic. Res. 31, 261-272.

Hansen, P.J., 2007. Exploitation of genetic and physiological determinants of embryonic resistance to elevated temperature to improve embryonic survival in dairy cattle during heat stress. Theriogenology. 68, 242–249.

Kappel, L.C., Ingraham, R.H., Morgan, E.B., Babcock, D.K., 1984. Plasma copper concentration and packed cell volume and their relationships to fertility and milk production in Holstein cows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45, 346-350.

Khorsandi, S., Riasi, A., Khorvasha, M., Mahyari, S.A., Mohammadpanah, F., Ahmadi, F., 2016. Lactation and reproductive performance of high producing dairy cows given sustained-release multi-trace element/vitamin ruminal bolus under heat stress condition. Livest. Sci. 187, 146-150.

Machado, V.S., Bicalho, M.L.S., Pereira, R.V., Caixeta, L.S., Knauer, W.A., Oikonomu, G., Gilbert, R.O., Bicalho, R.C., 2013. Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese on the health and production of lactation Holstein cows. Vet. J. 197, 451-456.

Machado, V.S., Bicalho, M.L.S., Pereira, R.V., Caixeta, L.S., Knauer, W.A., Oikonomu, G., Gilbert, R.O., Bicalho, R.C., 2014. The effect of injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum superoxide dismutase activity of lactating Holstein cows. Vet. J. 200, 299-304.

Martins, J.P., Policelli, R.K., Neuder, L.M., Raphael, W., Pursley, J.R., 2011. Effects of cloprostenol sodium at final prostaglandin F2α of Ovsynch on complete luteolysis and pregnancy per artificial insemination in lactating dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 94, 2815-2824.

Moonmanee, T., Navanukraw, C., Uriyapongson, S., Kraisoon, A., Aiumlamai, S., Guntaprom, S., Rittirod, T., Borowicz, P.P., Redmer, D.A., 2013. Relationships among vasculature, mitotic activity, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in bovine antral follicles of the first follicular wave. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 45, 11-21.

Navanukraw, C., Redmer, D.A., Reynolds, L.P., Kirsch, J.D., GrazulBilska, A.T., Fricke, P.M., 2004. A modified presynchronization protocol improves fertility to timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87, 1551–1557.

Navanukraw, C., Thammasiri, J., Moonmanee, T., Natthakornkul, J., 2014. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxiainducible factor-1 alpha during the periovulatory period in goats. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 38, 699-706.

Navanukraw, C., Khanthusaeng ,V., Kraisoon, A., Suwannarit, D., Jarassaeng, C., Aiumlamai, S., 2015. Synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin in lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts during heat stress. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 47, 945-951.

Nocek, J.E., Socha, M.T., Tomlinson, D.J., 2006. The effect of trace mineral fortification level and source on performance of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 2679-2693.

NRC, 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. National Academy Press. 7th ed. Washington: DC.Overton, T.R., Yasui, T., 2014. Practical applications of trace minerals for dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 92, 416-426.

Pereira, M.H.C., Wiltbank, M.C., Guida, T.G., Lopes, Jr.F.R., Vasconcelos, J.L.M., 2017. Comparison of 2 protocols to increase circulating progesterone concentration before timed artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows with or without elevated body temperature. J. Dairy Sci. 100, 1-16.

Pursley, J.R., Kosorok, M.R., Wiltbank, M.C., 1997. Reproductive management of lactating dairy cows using synchronization of ovulation. J Dairy Sci. 80, 301-306.

Rabiee, A.R., Lean, I.J., Stevenson, M.A., Socha, M.T., 2010. Effects of feeding organic trace minerals on milk production and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cows: A meta-analysis. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 4239-4251.

Roche, J.R., Friggens, N.C., Kay, J.K., Fisher, M.W., Stafford, K.J., Berry, D.P., 2009. Invited review: Body condition score and its association with dairy cow productivity, health, and welfare. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 5769-5801.

Rotruck, J.T., Pope, A.L., Ganther, H.E., Swanson, A.B., Hafeman, D.G., Hoekstra, W.G., 1973. Selenium: Biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 179, 588-590.

Sheldon, I.M., Cronin, J., Goetze, L., Donofrio, G., Schuberth, H.J., 2009. Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle. Biol. Reprod. 81,1025-1032.

Siciliano-Jones, J.L., Socha, M.T., Tomlinson, D.J., DeFrain, J.M., 2008. Effect of trace mineral source on lactation performance, claw integrity, and fertility of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 1985-1995.

Sordillo, L.M., Aitken, S.L., 2009. Impact of oxidative stress on the health and immune function of dairy cattle. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 128, 104-109.

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H., Dickey, D., 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach, third ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

Stevens, R.D., Dinsmore, R.P., 1997. Treatment of dairy cows at parturition with prostaglandin F2 alpha or oxytocin for prevention of retained fetal membranes. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 21, 1280-1284.

Teixeira, A.G.V., Lima, F.S., Bicalho, M.L.S., Kussler, A., Lima, S.F., Felippe, M.J., Bicalho, R.C., 2014. Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese on immunity, health, and growth of dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 97, 4216-4226.

Thammasiri, J., Navanukraw, C., Uriyapongson, S., Khanthusaeng, V., Kamollirt, C., 2016. Expression of cumulus-oocyte complex genes and embryonic development in goats subjected to progestogen-based estrus synchronization. Theriogenology. 86, 612-618.

Wischral, A., Nishiyama-Naruke, A., Curi, R., Barnabe, R.C., 2001. Plasma concentrations of estradiol 17β and PGF2α metabolite and placental fatty acid composition and antioxidant enzyme activity in cows with and without retained fetal membranes. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 65, 117–124.