Acute toxicity evaluation of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Balanophora latisepala (V.Tiegh.) Lec.

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Nguyen Trong Hong Phuc
Pham Dong Hai
Phan Thanh Dat
Nguyen Thi Yen Lan
Phung Thi Hang
Dang Minh Quan Minh Quan


Balanophora latisepala has been used in traditional medicine in Vietnam for many years with both proven and unproven scientific proofs. This study aimed to evaluate the acute toxicity effects of B. latisepala by testing safety parameters of hot water, ethanol and methanol extracts of B. latisepala in Mus musculus. The acute toxicity was studied according to the World Health Organisations guideline for the evaluation of the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. During study, a single dose of 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg/kg of each extract was orally administered to Swiss mice. To determine the median lethal dose, experimental mice were observed in behavior and mortality for 72 hours. Data of organ weight, histopathology,biochemical and hematology were also collected. The results showed that hot water, ethanol and methanol extracts at a dose of 5000 mg/kg did not induce mortality in experimental mice; therefore, LD50 is not determined. Insignificant changes were found in relative organ weight at dose 5000 mg/kg for all of the extracts. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in biochemical indices and organ histology. However, changes in hematological indices in both male and female mice were noticed. In male mice, it is likely that all B. latisepala extracts induced anemia. Moreover, clotting or bleeding abnormalities were also observed in female mice. Methanol extracts had the highest effect to hematology indices (p<0.05). Therefore, B.latisepala in different doses was shown its safety under acute toxicity studies with promising applications in drug therapy.


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Trong Hong Phuc, N. ., Dong Hai, P. ., Thanh Dat, P. ., Thi Yen Lan, N. ., Thi Hang, P. ., & Minh Quan, D. M. Q. (2022). Acute toxicity evaluation of methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Balanophora latisepala (V.Tiegh.) Lec.: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 20(3), 669–681. Retrieved from
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