Clinical haematology, biochemistry profiles and erythrocytic morphometry of confiscated Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) in the Centre for Rehabilitation and Quarantine of Confiscated Animals, Wildlife and Alien Species, Thailand

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Marnoch Yindee AVC, WU
Warisara Thomas
Worawidh Wajjawalku
Witsanu Wongsawang
Nicharee Income
Wantida Horpiencharoen
Nuttapon Bangkaew
Worapong Kosaruk
Wasinee Thepapichaikul
Wallaya Manatchaiworakul
Rattapan Pattanarangsan
Dettachai Ketpun


Every year, ten thousand Sunda Pangolins (Manis javanica) are rescued and confiscated from the illegal trade around Southeast Asia, including Thailand. Most of them are usually moribund and need intensive veterinary interventions to recover their health before being released to the wild. However, a lack of reliable haematology and clinical biochemistry references for Thai confiscated Sunda pangolins is a major difficulty for reaching this goal. The aim of this study was to establish a standard panel of haematology and serum biochemistry profiles used for confiscated pangolins in Thailand. Coccygeal venepuncture of 52 confiscated pangolins was performed. Haematology and serum biochemistry data acquisitions were made using automated blood analysers. The lower and upper limits at 90% confidence interval were calculated. The means of all parameters were calculated and then compared with those in two previous studies (p < 0.005). Blood corpuscle morphometry was done manually. All blood corpuscles in females were bigger than males. There were differences of haematologic and biochemical parameters among this study and previous studies in some aspects. Wide scientific discussion was made to explain these variations. A panel of haematology and serum biochemistry profiles for Thai confiscated Sunda pangolin has been established. Veterinarians can refer to all parameters to evaluate the animals’ health and diseases.

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AVC, WU, M. Y., Thomas, W., Wajjawalku, W., Wongsawang, W., Income, N., Horpiencharoen, W., Bangkaew, N., Kosaruk, W., Thepapichaikul, W., Manatchaiworakul, W., Pattanarangsan, R., & Ketpun, D. (2023). Clinical haematology, biochemistry profiles and erythrocytic morphometry of confiscated Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) in the Centre for Rehabilitation and Quarantine of Confiscated Animals, Wildlife and Alien Species, Thailand: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 21(2), 607–622. Retrieved from
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