The Comparative Effects of Azanza garckeana Fruit Pulp and Melatonin on Serum and Testicular Oxidative Stress Changes, Live Sperm Cells and Spermatozoa Abnormalities Evoked by Chronic Administration of Bisphenol A in Rabbit Bucks

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Joy Iyojo Itodo
Tagang Aluwong
Chidiebere Uchendu
Ngozi Ejum Ogbuagu
John Shiradiyi Bugau
Bode Abdulmujeeb Adewuyi
Felix Uchenna Samuel
Kenneth Owoicho Abah
Matthew Shinkut
Kanayo Peter Ogbuagu


The study aimed to elucidate serum and testicular oxidative stress changes induced by bisphenol A (BPA) and their amelioration by Azanza garckeana (AG) pulp extract and melatonin. Adult New Zealand White rabbit bucks (n = 42), with average live weight of 1.2 ± 0.03 kg and aged 10-18 months were fed ad libitum on a commercial diet. They were randomly divided into seven groups of six (6) bucks each. Group A was administered distilled water (1.5 mL); group B, BPA (100 mg/kg); group C, AG (500 mg/kg);  group D, melatonin (1.0 mg/kg); group E was pre-dosed for six weeks with BPA (100 mg/kg), then AG (500 mg/kg) for another six weeks; group F was pre-dosed for six weeks with BPA (100 mg/kg ), then melatonin (1.0 mg/kg) for another six weeks; and group G was pre-dosed for six weeks with BPA (100 mg/kg), then AG (500 mg/kg) and melatonin(1.0 mg/kg) for another six weeks. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the activities of both serum and testicular superoxide dismutase and catalase, concentrations of and reduced glutathione concentration as well as a decrease in MDA concentration in treatment groups. Percentage dead sperm, spermatozoa abnormalities such as detached sperm heads, free, coiled and bent tails in the groups exposed to BPA increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to controls. It is concluded that BPA-induced oxidative stress. The administration of AG only ameliorated this negative effects better than melatonin. However, optimum results was seen when both substances were administered synergistically.

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Iyojo Itodo, J., Aluwong, T. ., Uchendu, C. ., Ejum Ogbuagu, N. ., Shiradiyi Bugau, J. ., Abdulmujeeb Adewuyi, B. ., Uchenna Samuel, F. ., Owoicho Abah, K. ., Shinkut, M., & Ogbuagu, K. P. . (2023). The Comparative Effects of Azanza garckeana Fruit Pulp and Melatonin on Serum and Testicular Oxidative Stress Changes, Live Sperm Cells and Spermatozoa Abnormalities Evoked by Chronic Administration of Bisphenol A in Rabbit Bucks: Veterinary Integrative Sciences, 21(2), 523–543. Retrieved from
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